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Katowice on Climate Change – Adolf Hitler did it and the Conference ignores it!

How Naval War plunge Europe into Ice-Age condition after
mere four months in January 1940.

Post 12 December 2018

Several thousands of climate experts from around the world arrived for a conference on climate change, hoping to find a way the implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change (adopted in December 2015). In Katowice, Poland, the Parties are aiming to finalize a detailed set of rules and guidelines – the so-called Paris ‘work programme’ or ‘rule book’ from 2-14 December – which will enable the landmark accord to be put into practice all around the world. Particular is the monetary aspect, namely the promise to raise $100 billion a year, from both public and private sources, by 2020 to help developing countries address climate change. The sum is mind-boggling, and the complete ignorance to simple historical events – for example the arctic winter in Europe 1919/40 – is shocking and dangerous.

The Second World War (WWII) was only 100 days old when weather in Europe started to run amok. It is easy to compile several dozen ‘unexpected and unusual’ events indicating that the weather started to leave common standards since December 1939. What happened as early as at Christmas Eve in Finland will be presented at the end of the post, as the climatic drama first culminated in January 1940, but continued well until mid-February, which is thoroughly discussed in numerous book chapter, online  HERE & HERE.

One of the climatic high-lights of the winter 1939/40 had been a number of all-time cold records at many location in the Baltic Sea region, for example in Hamburg, on 12. February 1940. Almost a month earlier Poland reached to all time low, which brings us back to the current gathering in Katowice. In 277km distance in NNE  and about  50km west of Warsaw is the village Siedlce. Already on the 11th of January 1940 the thermometer dropped to the incredible level of minus 41°C, respectively minus 41,8°Fahrenheit. At that time the Baltic Sea was still not covered with sea ice, which only happened in early March 1940, and for the first time in the 20th Century.  How that could happen so suddenly, after the year 1939 had been within the normal temperature range, actually there had been a lasting warming since 1918, and the late 1930s had been the highest ever recorded.

Under such circumstances it is highly ignorant and gross negligent to talk about climate change in Katowice, although human activities may have cause, or highly contributed to record cold temperatures in winter 1940. The ignorance is particularly annoying, as the mechanism which lead to the rampage of climate can be easily attributed to the warmonger Adolf Hitler, who started WWII and this inigiated that huge naval force crisscrossed the sea, and churned and turned the sea up-side-down by shelling, mining, torpedoing, and bombing. The immediate consequences are easily explained by a daily exercise:

Too warm water in the baby-tube in cooled down by churning the water with the hand around. The North and Baltic Sea are like the baby-tube, warned during the summer season. If forcefully churned in autumn and early winter, any stored heat diminishes quickly, opening the way for cold air in anti-cyclones (high-pressure) to move frm Siberia westwards up the shores of the North-Atlantic, denying low pressure cyclones to travel straight eastwards, directing them either to the Barents Sea or South to the Mediterranean Sea.   

 That happened evidently in winter 1939/40. And what is climatology doing? They ignore it, although it would turn the whole climate change debate in a complete different direction. Evidence would be on the table that man is able to a moderst winter scenario into a disaster within a few months. One mad-man as Adolf Hitler is enough to cause the coldest winter in Europe over more than a century. The Katowice climate summit is bringing together around 30 000 delegates from almost 200 countries, top state officials, representatives of business and NGOs among them, but without the competence and interest to answer a fairly simple question: What cause the sudden climatic change in winter 1939/40? Which atmospheric condition caused the all-time cold record in the village Siedlce on 11th January 1940 and several other locations? What caused the full ice-cover of the Baltic Sea after more than 40 years? What caused the extraordinary Christmas Story narrated by a reporter from the New York Times (extract), which goes at it follows:

December 24th 1939: Report by James Aldridge: “The cold numbs the brain in this Arctic hell, snow sweeps over the darkened wastes, the winds howl and the temperature is 30 degrees below zero (minus 34.4° C). Here the Russians and Finns are battling in blinding snowstorms for possession of ice-covered forests. …I reached the spot just after the battle ended. It was the most horrible sight I had ever seen. As if the men had been suddenly turned to wax, there were two or three thousand Russians and a few Finns, all frozen in fighting attitudes. Some were locked together, their bayonets within each other’s bodies; some were frozen in half-standing positions; some were crouching with their arms crooked, holding the hand grenades they were throwing; some were lying with their rifles shouldered, their legs apart….Their fear was registered on the frozen faces. Their bodies were like statues of men throwing all their muscles and strength into some work, but the faces recorded something between bewilderment and horror”.       

(NYT, December 25, 1939). Full article as jpg _ATTACHED to the left

more from NYT Dec.25, 1939:  HERE  & HERE  ; The drama in Finland at Christmas is discussed HERE

Merry Christmas

For 79 years a rich set of weather data is available. The war parties collected them abundantly. The proofed easily that the German Reichkanzeler could have trailed and convicted as the first climate-change criminal.  But climate science is not interested. They consume billions and billions in research a possible CO2 menace, ignoring the  realistic threat by human activities in the marine environment. Presumably the biggest disaster concerning anthropogenic climate change matters.

Happy New Year 2019

the 80th year after WWII commenced on 1st September 1939

By Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

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On the Struggle to Visualize Climate

The narrow view of climate science is like the dismissed
thesis that the earth is flat.

Post 09 November 2018

The two titles to this post are taken from a recent essay “Most People Live in a Flat Earth and Struggle to Visualize Climate and a Three-Dimensional Atmosphere.” by Dr. Tim Ball at WUWT on 04 Nov 2018. The assessment by Tim Ball that for to many people the earth is still flat, is a good start to discuss deficiencies in climate change matters.  Focusing merely on the atmosphere, is a much to narrow view: “they look at weather maps but are unable to visualize the 3-D atmosphere.”  But is this view not also too much restrictive? Is not the ocean the media which makes climate? Here at we think the discussion should be considerable wider, as all what concerns about weather and climate is primarily a water question. This issue was already prominent, long ago, by Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519).

Leonardo da Vinci’s musings on the nature of the world and what makes it tick is shown in the exhibition “Water as Microscope of Nature: Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Codex Leicester,’ ” at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence since 30th October last week. He was convinced that the science of waters would enable him to reveal the organization and functioning of nature. The exhibition offers many hindsight how he viewed: water. Famous is his saying:  Water is the driving force of all nature. And that brings in the term climate.

To ‘visualize climate’ it is necessary to tell the people what climate is. In the mentioned essay (above) Tim Ball merely offers this explanation:

“The idea of a differing angle of the sun is critical to understanding climate and climate change. This is why the word climate derives from the Greek word for inclination. It is also why the Greeks were able to identify three climate zones, the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid”

Actually he wanted to provide further explanation to a previous essay at WUWT on 14th October 2018: “Climate Research in the IPCC Wonderland: What Are We Really Measuring and Why Are We Wasting All That Money?”, where he discussed in detail a 2006-paper “Does a Global Temperature Exist”, assuming: “that weather forecasting has not improved despite all the satellite and computer models and  that climate forecasting has deteriorated, despite  the trillions of dollars spent on computer models, government weather agencies, useless research, and unnecessary energy and environment policies based on their failed work.”

As a reminder, the subject is about global air temperature, and whether they increase globally. Air temperatures are part of local and global weather, but they are not weather. Temperatures are numbers or indicate more warm or more cold. By IPCC definition (Glossary 2018):

Global warming is an increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) averaged over a 30-year period, relative to 1850-1900 unless otherwise specified.  For periods shorter than 30 years, global warming refers to the estimated average temperature over the 30 years centred on that shorter period, accounting for the impact of any temperature fluctuations or trend within those 30 years.

There should be no room to use the term climate, which means traditionally “average weather”, respectively numerical data, of several dozen different atmospheric conditions or observations. Talking about “Visualize Climate and a Three-Dimensional Atmosphere” is of no help, to improve the meaningless use of terms as: climate, climate change, climate system a.s.o..  Leonardo da Vinci indicated the direction: that water matters. When saying that water is the driver of nature it stands simultaneously for the oceans make climate, because they are covering more than 70 percent of the Earth’s surface and containing about 97 percent of its surface water, and  the ocean stores vast amounts of energy in the form of heat.

That the assessment of global warming has deficiencies is due to the fact, as indicated by Tim Ball, that the coverage numbers temperature data are meaningless because there are only weather stations for about 15% of the Earth’s surface. There are virtually no stations for 70% of the world that is oceans, [of the continents about 80% are mountains, forest, desert and, grassland], see Fig.3 above. But the relevance of the oceans on long -term weather conditions (climate) is extreme higher than the mere surface coverage of 70%. With an average depth of about 3,688 meters (12,100 ft), only mere three meters of the water column is in the atmosphere, resulting in a ratio of 1000:1.  Presumably Leonardo da Vinci would suggest to us to struggle to visualize all global water in any possible dimension and impact from and on human kind. Ignoring it is as if claiming the earth is flat.

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The Term “Climate System” is an empty phrase – But Richard Lindzen uses the term!

The 2018 Annual GWPF Lecture: “Global Warming for the Two Cultures”
provides no clue

Post Friday 26th October 2018

It sounds though when a speaker announces:  “This lecture attempts to force the scientists in the audience to come to grips with the actual nature of the climate system”. Indeed one should wonder when someone is talking about the “actual nature of the climate system”, without telling in the first place, how he would like to define the term, as those commonly used are of little help. But let’s start with the recent lecture.

Definitions: IPCC, AR5, 2013, Glossary, p. 1450
As always, Richard Lindzen was blunt, when telling the 2018 Annual GWPF Lecture: “Global Warming for the Two Cultures”, that man-made climate change does not appear to be a serious problem.  The Professor (emeritus) of Meteorology for Massachusetts Institute of Technology says that much of accepted ‘politically correct’ knowledge is nonsense.
The lecture (55 min) is HERE. The text in PDF: HERE.

Indeed many aspects concerning the global warming issue could turn out to be nonsense. He indicated by saying:  “Of course, the climate system is driven by the sun, but even if the solar forcing were constant, the climate would still vary. In this respect, the climate system is no different from other natural systems.”

But here we have to start wondering how carelessly Prof. Lindzen is using the term “climate system”. In the beginning he talked about the actual nature of the climate system”, suddenly he assumes that “climate system is no different from other natural systems”. That sound great but is scientifically of no help. It is too superficial. How do “other natural systems” look like?   Would they indicate any distinction to a “climate system”? Hardly! Article 1 of the 1992 ‘UN Framework Convention on Climate Change,’ ( UNFCCC) says that:

“Climate system” means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.

Would anyone object if someone would regard that as: “Natural system” means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions. According common definition: Nature is the phenomena of the physical world collectively, including plants, animals, the landscape, and other features and products of the earth. It seems difficult to detect a difference to a climate system.  However, both refer to the world of physics.

The problem with climate science is that they fail to understand that the term “climate” is a mere statistical tool, in short “Climate is average weather”, as still enshrined in a longer version:

Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the average weather, or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period for averaging these variables is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. The relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. (Source: IPCC, AR5, 2013,  Glossary,  p. 1450)

The sea is by far the biggest generator of vapor
That physical- interaction play a role is nowhere mentioned. The reference to “average weather” is still only statistic, and “surface variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind” is not weather, but mere, although important parts – of many dozen weather criteria. Assessing by “statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years”, has little chance to produce a useful and serious discussion.

Only by such negligence Prof. Lindzen could assume that his “description of the climate system contains nothing that is in the least controversial, and he expects that anyone with a scientific background will readily follow the description.”  Here is one of his examples that show what is wrong with such much too general approach:

1st statement: The system we are loking at consists in two turbulent fluids (the atmosphere and oceans) interacting with each other…

2nd statement: It is important to note that such a system will fluctuate with time scales ranging from seconds to millennia, even in the absence of an explicit forcing other than a steady sun. Much of the popular literature (on both sides of the climate debate) assumes that all changes must be driven by some external factor. Of course, the climate system is driven by the sun, but even if the solar forcing were constant, the climate would still vary.

First Remark: When mentioning that “The atmosphere and oceans interacting with each other…”it would be helpful to express clearly, that it happens due to water, which comes from the ocean, which governs the earth by a ratio of 1000:1.

Second Remark: The mentioned time scale up to millennia is only due to one turbulent fluid, namely the ocean, while the atmosphere without the ocean input would last for hardly more than a few weeks.

Third Remark: More than 70% of all sun radiation is received by the ocean, which has a higher storage capacity than the continents that makes the oceans to the driver of the global weather system (See last box below).

Further Reading: Ever closer to reality – Global warming caused by the oceans

Ditto – Ron Clutz (26th October 2018): Bill Gray: H20 is Climate Control Knob, not CO2


           A slowing down of the global ocean’s MOC is the likely cause ofmost of the global warming that has been observed since the latter part of the 19th century.15 I hypothesize that shorter multi-decadal changes in the MOC16 are responsible for the more recent global warming periods between 1910–1940 and 1975–1998 and the global warming hiatus periods between 1945–1975 and 2000–2013.
          Solar variations, sunspots, volcanic eruptions and cosmic ray changes are energy-wise too small to play a significant role in the large energy changes that occur during important multi-decadal and multi-century temperature changes. It is the Earth’s internal fluctuations that are the most important cause of climate and temperature change. These internal fluctuations are driven primarily by deep multi-decadal and multi-century ocean circulation changes, of which naturally varying upper-ocean salinity content is hypothesized to be the primary driving mechanism.
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Poor science plagues climate science!

Climate models are junk, if not primarily based on data from the ocean

Post: 03 September 2018

The greatest scientist of the last century, H.H. Lamb (1913-1997), felt that modeling was too uncritically. One reason was presumably that he started to make the first connections between sea-surface temperatures and the atmospheric circulation (The Independent, 1997). He was also the one who observed in 1969 that “Only thirty years ago climatology was generally regarded as the mere dry-as-dust bookkeeping end of meteorology (NATURE). It seems little has changed during the last 50 years. Actually it got much worst. Science used to define climate as ‘average weather over a period of 30 years versus the period from 1901 to 1930, but consider the term climate now “as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years.” (DETAILS HERE) This is poor science and makes climate science a joke. Even the most incomplete definition would require that the impact of the ocean be greatly emphasized (see the Fig. 1 & 2).

The tragic of the climate change debate is that climatology is not willing or able to the accept a basic notion by  Voltaire (1694 – 1778)

                “If you wish to converse with me, define your terms.”

Recently Tim Ball used this quote out of his observation that  “Explaining Global Warming to the Public is Impossible Because We Are Not Talking the Same Language” (WUWT, 23 Sept.2018) Although he touches the problem frequently (e.g. WUWT, 28 May 2018) he misses the crucial point to understand climate change and what human kind is contributing – the role of the oceans.

It is not too difficult to imagine why H.H. Lamb felt that climate modeling was too uncritically, as he was serious on the connections between sea-surface temperatures and the atmospheric circulation. By the time Lamb would have realized that ‘global climate’ [regardless of a definition] depends on the status of the sea –from top to bottom – to 95%+! But climatology works to 95%+ with data from the atmosphere, respectively ‘weather data’. Why is Tim Ball wondering that climate skeptics and mainstream climatology are not talking the same language, although both fail grossly when it comes to the ocean? The main division comes from believing in or being skeptical of climate models. Those produce scrap if not fed with ocean data, which at best exist only randomly.  Sceptics fail to make this their main argument.

Even the former director of the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, Henry Tennekes, takes a too narrow view (from: A Climate of Stage Angst) :

    • Climate models are quasi-deterministic and have to simulate daily circulation patterns for tens of years on end before average values can be found. The much more challenging problem of producing a theory of climate forecast skill is left by the wayside.

      The horrible predictability problems of turbulent flows then will descend on climate science with a vengeance.

Indeed it will not work if the focus is not the ocean. For climate models one need primarily ocean data. Tennekes himself was hardly aware what that actually means, when he wrote the essay: “Karl Popper and the accountability of numerical Weather forecasting” (in: Weather, Vol. 47, p.342-6, 1992):

  • “Popper’s interest in predictability…in meteorological terms, a perfect model of the atmosphere, initialized with perfect data from an observation network of infinitive resolution, and run on an infinitely powerful computer, should in principle produce a perfect forecast with an unlimited range of validity”.

Popper understands the problem of modeling perfectly. But if he restricts the problem to the atmosphere he is lost to forecast weather and climate over more than a few weeks. H. Tenneken hardly looks a little bit further, when he assesses:

“…..[those] that advocate the idea that the response of the real climate to radiative forcing is

adequately represented in climate models have an obligation to prove that they have not overlooked a single nonlinear, possiblychaotic feedback mechanism that Nature itself    employs.”

Nature does not overlook anything. Nature is driven by water and energy, both of which is up to one-thousand times more relevant as those in

the atmosphere, at least if talking about a longer period of time. It is high time to ensure that any climate definition or climate models put the oceans first.

Talking about climate change would become easier and raise the chance to understand, when and why man has change climate during the last 100 years – for example – by global cooling from 1940 to the mid-1970s, as indicated in the above Figure ‘ocean-temperature’ (see .

What happened when World War II commenced on 1st September 1939. A global cooling
started from winter 19391940 lasting to the mid-1970s.

If the reason was the war at sea it would prove that man can
change climate in a short period of time of few months or years!








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“Hothouse Earth” status assessed – By ignorant climatologists!

The Ocean status is ready for the next big cooling,
which is the real threat for mankind.

Post:  16th August 2018

In a previous post we discussed Younger Dryas cooling about 13,000 years ago. Another dramatic cooling occurred at ca. 8,200 y B.P. in the Early Holocene that was triggered by the glacial drainage of freshwater into the North Atlantic and is recorded in multiple climatic archives across the globe. Frequently this side discussed substantial man-made weather and climatic changes during the two World Wars 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 (for 1939/40 see Fig. 3), MORE; and is convinced – based on strong facts – that shipping and  other ocean uses by man has significantly contributed to global warming during the last 150 years (Fig. 5, 6), more HERE.

Now 16 eminent scientists published a study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science – PNAS August 6, 2018 – titled: “Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene” mentioning the ocean and seas -except as CO2 sink –  not with one word. Instead they talk big about our planet at risk of heading towards an irreversible “Hothouse Earth” state. The abstract opens with the statement

We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperature rises and cause continued warming on a “Hothouse Earth” pathway even as human emissions are reduced. Crossing the threshold would lead to a much higher global average temperature than any interglacial in the past 1.2 million years and to sea levels significantly higher than at any time in the Holocene.

 Eventually the authors consider ten natural feedback processes they regard are as “tipping elements” that lead to abrupt change if a critical threshold is crossed, naming permafrost thaw, loss of methane hydrates from the ocean floor, weakening land and ocean carbon sinks, increasing bacterial respiration in the oceans, Amazon rainforest dieback, boreal forest dieback, reduction of northern hemisphere snow cover, loss of Arctic summer sea ice, and reduction of Antarctic sea ice and polar ice sheets. The authors shows that they lack any clue on how the global climate system works, and that the oceans are – next to the sun – the decisive driver of the weather system and climatic change events. That is shocking and undermines any hope that climatology will understand human impact on the Earth system, and whether man risks contributing to a HOTHOUSE or COLDHOUSE, any time soon.

Not less shocking is the observation that the study by the team of 16 international scientists (Will Steffen, et al.) was merely dismissed partly for “that there was no new science here”, but not therefore that the highly evident impact of the ocean is entirely ignored (see above). Even such highly attentive critics as Prof. Judith Curry, seems far away of addressing the serious deficiencies of the study, merely remarking in her post at  (excerpts from “JC reflections”)

If the paper wasn’t so heavy on the policy prescriptions, it would be a much more credible contribution.  //cont.
For almost a decade, I have been arguing that we need to articulate the possible worst case scenario for climate change.  Such an articulation would take climate science beyond the restrictions of climate models to understand how the climate system works in terms of interacting feedbacks and also abrupt climate change.  We need to bring more discipline (and creativity) to this interesting and important endeavor.

That is by far too little. At least Prof. Judith Curry is right that more efforts are needed “to understand how the climate system works”. But this requires immediate recognition of the major role of the huge and extreme cold water masse contained in the oceans and sea concerning weather and climatic matter, and profound and thorough research about the historic events (e.g. naval war changed climate), present (shipping, fishing and other ocean uses) and future human ocean activities that may influence climate change.

Post by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts, August 16, 2018

Study Summary – Press Release – 06/08/2018: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) e. V.

Study Summary – THE GUARDIAN – John Abraham, Wed 15 Aug 2018 11.00 BST; “Humans are pushing the Earth closer to a climate cliff”

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“Differences between ocean circulation and climate more generally” by Carl Wunsch 2010

Judith Curry raises the part to the sociology of
climate science only. The oceans are what matters most.

Post July 25th, 2018

Talking about the difference between ocean circulation and climate more generally is per se a strong massage that there is a strong correlation. Back in 1984 Carl Wunsch discussed the matter already lengthy in: ”The Global Climate”, ed. John T. Houghton, Cambridge p.189-203).  He raises a number of topics, saying for example: “The role of the ocean in climate and climate change is unlikely to be demonstrated and understood until observations become meaningful in terms of physics being tested” (p.189); and “There is no substitute for adequate data”, (p.200).

More recently Carl Wunsch published the paper “Towards Understanding the Paleocean” (Quaternary Science Review, 2010, p. 1960-1967).  Almost a decade late the paper surfaced due to Prof. Judith Curry while doing a literature survey for a paper on Climate Uncertainty and Risk. As she regarded the paper by the esteemed oceanographer for a fascinating perspective on paleo-oceanography and paleoclimatology, she used it for a post on her blog Climate Etc.; titled: ”The perils of ‘near-tabloid science’” on July 22, 2018. Unfortunately she chooses a one-sided approach by selecting only excerpts of relevance to the sociology of climate science. The oceanic part is completely neglected, although the Wunsch paper expresses the view understanding the dynamics and physics of the ocean is a perquisite for predicting future climate. Merely concentration on the sociology of climate science indicates to the fundamental problems in the climate change debate is distracting from the core issue of climate: the oceans. One need only to read the comments to Curry’s post at Climate Etc. & WUWT. The ocean issue is not discussed.

Carl Wunsch has raised the need for ocean observation throughout his career as oceanographer (see above). In his essay of 2010 he mention inter alias:

__ Myriad hypotheses have been put forward as rationalizing some elements of the oceanic role in

influencing climate–ranging over essentially all possible time scales out to the age of the ocean. One cannot begin to discuss all of these, and so I will here take as a not-untypical example, the hypothesis that the North Atlantic circulation largely controls the climate system, and in particular, the notion that the surface salinity is the determining influence.

­­___ As with future climate, where no data exist at all, the models promise descriptions of climate change –past and future– without the painful necessity of obtaining supporting observations.

­­___ The study of paleoclimate encompasses such a huge range of problems, methods, regions, phenomena, time and space scales, that no one has mastered it all. With that complexity, any science runs the risk of becoming so abstract, or so devoted to particular stories, or both, that they lose relevance to the physical world.

In his previous essay “OBSERVATIONAL NETWORK DESIGN FOR CLIMATE”, 2009, the list of requirements is even more detailed (excerpts):

(1)  The  problems  of  climate  are  global:  understanding of the nature of the mean ocean, and its variability cannot  ultimately  be  isolated  from  even  remote  regions. Dependence on distant regions is only weakly a function of the space-time scale of any particular disturbance —in many  cases,  signals  of  change  are  transmitted  globally extremely  rapidly,  but  with  final  equilibrium  requiring decades to thousands of years.

(2) Any true global observing system will be an amalgam of disparate elements such as altimeters, drifters, gliders, floats, and moorings.

(3)  True understanding of the climate system can be claimed only if all the observations are considered (….).

(4) True understanding of the climate system requires a synthesis of the disparate data types with the dynamics believed to govern the system.  (5)  ….

(6) Quantitative use of data and models cannot be done without adequate knowledge of the likely errors of both. (7…; 8….)

 (9) Any useful ocean observation system must be open ended in time—there is no low-frequency cut-off to the time scales over which the system is capable of change, and  new  physics  always  enters  as  the  time  scale  increases.  Much  of  what  we  see  today  may  well  be  the result  of  changes  and  forces  acting  in  the  distant  past. Design considerations must thus include the ability to sustain a high quality system indefinitely so that those long times are ultimately observed.

Carl Wunsch’s message is explicit. Without an in-depth, profound and long lasting ocean observing system the climate change debate remains an unsolved and shaky debate.

While working on this post Ron Clutz referred to a report in May 2015 The Atlantic is entering a cool phase that will change the world’s weather by Gerald McCarthy and Evan Haigh of the RAPID Atlantic monitoring project.
The oceans are what matters most.

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Glacial Meltwater cause climate changes – Why not activities at sea in time of peace and war?

To explain Younger Dryas cooling look at what modern ocean uses
is contributing to climate change

Post: July 13; 2018

About 13,000 years ago, the warming out of the last ice age temporarily reversed course around the North Atlantic. This cold “Younger Dryas” period lasted almost 2,000 years. Fig. 1.  Like most climate events that primarily affect the North Atlantic region, ocean circulation is the prime suspect, starts a recent article by I.D. Keigwin et al. (Nature Geoscience). Indeed, any huge input of water in the ocean wills inevitable change the temperature, salinity and subsequently the horizontal and vertical current. A high volume influx of meltwater can jam regional or global ocean circulation. The consequence is a climatic change, for example the Younger Dryas cooling. That is what the paper is talking about (summarized HERE) .

Discussing big climate changes in a similar context is by far not new, with little avail. Too remote is overriding influence of the ocean on any change taken into account. Due to its cheer size low average temperature of mere +4°C, and variation in salinity, its relevance in the climatic system is 1’000 times bigger than of the atmosphere. A comparable very small water body of meltwater, cold and salt free, can easily trigger a very substantial drop of air temperature and an ice age. If the mentioned research concludes that melting water was “most probably the trigger” for the Younger Dryas cooling, it avoids discussing the ocean issue. Why? Is it a too big issue? Are too little data available? What could be done to overcome this problem?

A number of similar papers show the same short comings. In 2010 Andres E. Carlson discussed “What caused the Younger Dryas cold event?” , respectively Xu Zhang, 2014 “Has the puzzle of rapid climate change in the last ice age been solved?” Both mention remotely a slowing of Atlantic circulation, but remain far away from linking the periods of ice ages to the overriding structure of the oceans that can easily be triggered by numerous causes climatic changes, for example: meltwater, earthquakes, meteorites and so on. That is difficulty to assess after ten thousand, several hundred thousand or millions years, as ocean circulation is changing, leaving no direct record.

Does that prevent progress on understanding the impact of the ocean structure on climate change? It does not! Science need not more to do than investigate the impact of ocean activities at and in the sea. Shipping, fishing, off-shore industry, and other activities have an immediate profound effect on the temperature and salinity structure in the upper sea surface level. Those are not peanuts if one has to talk about many 100 Millions of nautical miles per day. Down to 10 meters the sea surface is mixed, leaving a wake that changed the temperature and salinity structure. Science does not even see that this is a serious contribution to global warming over the last century.

While general sea activities alter the ocean structure very slowly, mankind has shown that it is able to act also very forcefully over a short period of time. It did so during the two World Wars 1914-18 and 1939-45.  In both cases the global climate changed course over few decades. Science needs only to pick up the challenge to explain the global warming after WWI and the global cooling from about 1940 to the mid-1970s. (more HERE)  That research would enable science for better understanding historical drastic temperature jumps, but also understand urgently that

  • Industrial and leisure activities at sea is a serious contributor to Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW),

  • How easily man can influence weather and climate, and

  • The most dramatic threat to men is global cooling from the vastness and depth of the oceans, which can come quickly and with ice age temperatures the current civilization can hardly cope with.  

  • Excerpts from:

    __Post 25. May 2010 – “Dr. Don Easterbrook, Professor of Geology at Western Washington University in Bellingham, WA.
    _About 12,800 years ago we plunged into the Younger Dryas, said Easterbrook. When we came out of the Younger Dryas, temperatures again shot upward, rising 15 degrees in just 40 years.
    _”Expect global cooling for the next 2-3 decades that will be far more damaging than global warming would have been,” says Easterbrook. “Twice as many people are killed by extreme cold than by extreme heat.”

    A dangerous thesis:  “Forget human influence.
    Cooling and warming are both natural”
      Dr. Don Easterbrook


    READ Letter | Published: : E. Maier et al,
    North Pacific freshwater events linked to changes in glacial ocean circulation, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0276-y


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Joe Bastardi and Wim Röst on the right way –Although too slowly!

The powerhouse in global weather and climate – The Ocean.

Post 17. June 2018

Global warming haunts the general public for three decades. The vast majority of weather and climate scientists claim that human generated carbon dioxide (CO2) is warming the world and causing climate change since the 1980s. Fixed to this issue they are presumably the ultimate threat to a water planet as this earth. Any possible anthropogenic impact on the oceans and subsequently the weather and climate should be a major issue, which requires that all possible mechanism must be understood thoroughly. The current scientific community is fixed on the atmosphere, including sun and volcanoes, but considers the sea too remotely. That is dangerous! The oceans-govern-climate!

It is extremely rare to hear a voice that emphasizes the connection between water and climate as a prerequisite for understanding climate changes. In a recent post concerning fundamental climatic changes over geological periods WIM RÖST (WUWT – 15.June) asserts that all changes were due to water, which determines the ‘General Background Temperature’ for the Earth, resulting in Hothouse and Ice House Climate States. Interesting is his assessment that “the temperature of the deep ocean is the main factor. Deep-ocean temperatures from -1 to +3 degrees Celsius, as we have now, keep the Earth in an Ice House State. Slightly warmer deep-oceans with temperatures from 6 to 10 degrees Celsius* bring the Earth to a Warm House or a Hot House Climate State.”

 More to the point of understanding the link ocean-climate today is Joe Bastardi in a post of 14. June 2018 : “More Evidence Water Vapor Is The Big Climate Kahuna”, by accentuating that:

Well, what is the number one source of thermal energy on the planet, with 99.9%? The oceans.
What is the prime source of water vapor (and arguably CO2)? The oceans.

Joe Bastardi, highly skeptical of the relevance of CO2 assumes that: We are chasing the wrong thing in our attempt to quantify and understand the climate;

In so far we are fully on his side, but too narrow when merely questioning whether: Is the increase of CO2 warming the ocean because of the radiative properties? Or are the state of the oceans a product of many things, the sun a primary driver?

The question should instead be based on the current ocean structure and physical mechanism. What impacts have the various human marine activities from shipping, and fishing to off-shore installations? Any activity may warm or cool the sea surface, which immediate or long term impact on the state of the atmosphere. After all the sea-surface temperatures (SST) are only warm in a very thin layer, while the ocean total average is only about +4° Celsius. Was the global cooling from 1940 to 1970 caused by WWII? Screw driven vessels are likely to have contributed to warming the SST over more than 100 years. Sub-surface activities, as off shore industry, fishing and naval wars , affect the vertical temperature and salinity structure over considerable water depths. Neither Wim Röst nor Joe Bastardi have any clue about anthropogenic ocean change, although Wim Röst gets the general view right:

Oceans create ‘climate states’ and in the atmosphere, ‘weather’ is created by water vapor.
(From last section of the post).

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Professor Sybren Drijfhout acknowledge: Ocean forcing the atmosphere

Ever closer to reality – Global warming caused by the oceans

Post: May 20, 2018

It is that easy! Global mean temperatures are always forced by changes in heat release and heat uptake by the oceans. That is the core message of an essay by  Professor Sybren Drijfhout from Southhampton University: The relation between natural variations in ocean heat uptake and global mean surface temperature anomalies in CMIP5 ; is published on 9th May 2018 in Nature Scientific Reports. It says: “New research has shown that natural variations in global mean temperature are always forced by changes in heat release and heat uptake by the oceans, in particular the heat release associated with evaporation“.

However, big reservations need to be made. It is OK that the essay is very technical. It is inacceptable that it is far away to explain the role of the global oceans in global warming and cooling matters. Instead it is merely talking about models, models and more models. But models can only be of help if the physical mechanism behind the weather and climate system is understood. For that it is necessary to mention that the oceanic heat content is 1000-times bigger that of the air and has only an average temperature of mere plus 4° Celsius.

Talking about the warming of the oceans, should not only be subject to computer simulation, but should consider possible causes. A major factor is definitely human activities at sea. Shipping, fishing, and off-shore facilities have a huge impact on the sea surface temperature (SST). All screw driven vessels and boats are likely to turn over the    upper sea-level on a distance of 100 Million kilometers very day. This is a huge potential for warming the oceans. Since motor ships cross the seas, the global temperatures are on the rise, except for the two world-wars related periods. HERE & HERE.

As Professor Sybren Drijfhout research is confined to shown that in all cases variations in global mean temperature were correlated with variations in heat release by sensible and latent heat; it will be still a long way to understand the human contribution on ocean warming. It sound even naive when he says “these variations are associated with heat transfer due to temperature differences between the surface ocean and the overlying air, and heat transfer associated with evaporation. The heat fluxes are also called the turbulent heat fluxes.”  More in a press-release.

At least the blog Watts-Up-With-That“ (WUWT) picked up the message regarding it as vindication for Dr. Roger Pielke Sr. who has said that global ocean heat content is the best metric for tracking global warming. (WUWT-05/15/18) Prof. Pielke Sr is one of the very few who is willing to give the ocean a more prominent role in climate change matters, but is hardly much closer to it as Prof Drijfhout. But that is another story. For the moment it is important if an essay considers: Ocean forcing the atmosphere, and global warming caused by the oceans.

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“The science of climate change causing wars is not solid” – Vice-versa is correct!

Still ignored that naval wars changed climate

Posted: 01 May 2018

A recent guest essay by Albert Parker at WUWT, (28. April 2018) states:
There have been many recent claims that “climate change” was the reason for conflicts, with also the war in Syria explained by the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission. However, this is not settled science, as this claim is wrong.”

He is right and he explains it to some extent – which the interested reader should read in full HERE -, but he is talking nonsense either, when ignoring the correlation between the two World Wars 100 and 70 years ago, as discussed many times here in previous posts.

The Parker-Essay miss to analyze of the presented temperature data for Berlin-Tempelhof and Berlin-Dahlem with the caption (in red):

Fig. 1 – Wrongly phased anthropogenic global warming for the start and the end of World War II. World War II did not start because of an early outbreak of anthropogenic global warming and did not end with more renewable energy and more carbon taxes mitigating this warming. Temperatures in Berlin were at a record low at the start of World War II September 1, 1939, and more than 3 degrees Celsius higher when Soviet soldiers raised their flag on top of the Reichstag building on May 2, 1945. Top temperature profiles from NASA GISS (GHCN V2 on left, GHCN V3 on the right) in Berlin – Temple. Middle images from Wikipedia of the start and end of the war. Bottom temperature profiles from NASA GISS (GHCN V2 on left, GHCN V3 on the right) in Berlin – Dahlem.

A more in-depth research would have shown that the sudden drop of the annual temperature in 1940 was actually a winter issues. Out of nowhere the winter 1939/40 was the coldest for more than 100 years, as well as the subsequent winter 1940/41 and 1941/42. In so far it is important to realize that the sudden extraordinary weather condition prevailed during the winter seasons. As the influence of the sun diminishes strongly from October to February, it is much easier to investigate the causes. When taking into account that main region of coldness stretched from Great Britain to St. Petersburg and Moscow, respectively covered the North – and Baltic Sea, it is inevitable to consider a decisive link to the huge naval activities in these semi-enclosed waters. They store heat during the summer season, which is released during winter. The more the water is churned by winter of human activities, the quicker the heat is released, diminishing the heating capacity. Cold air from the Arctic or Siberia can establish their reign over Europe up the North Atlantic. That easy was it to plunge the war winter 1939/40 to a record low.

The impact of naval war on the first three war winter in WWII is evident (see links to a detailed analysis: below).  The three first WWII winter in Europe could serve as evidence how easy climate can be changed by human activities. Actually it happened in connection with the First World War, and moreover the three decades global cooling from 1940 to mid-1970 is a serious naval war matter.

Hence the guest blogger Albert Parker, misses the problem he discus complete, but stands in line with main stream climatology neither able or willing that oceans-govern-climate, and that they fail to prove by analyzing the impact of naval war on weather and climate in the two World Wars.

The book: 
by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

Links to nine Chapters on Naval War during the  1st war winter 1939/40 Book pages 13 to 104

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Serious Terms? Climate Sensitivity? Natural Warming?

 Bad Definitions? – Negligent climate science?

Post: 15th April 2018; Reference:

A clear language matters. Meaningful definitions are essential in science. Climatic science seems a hopeless case in this respect. They brought themselves to prominence three decades ago, but for them “Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the average weather”. It follows a few abstracts from current definitions:

„weather“ (AMS) =
___The state of the atmosphere, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and human activities.
___Popularly, weather is thought of in terms of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind.
___The “present weather” table consists of 100 possible conditions, with 10 possibilities for “past weather”

climate (AMS) =
_ The slowly varying aspects of the atmosphere–hydrosphere–land surface system.

__…suitable averages of the climate system

climate  (IPPC) =
­­­__relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years
­__relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind

(more on climatology, climate system and climate sensibility, see below)

Meanwhile they talk big, about statistics from months to millions of years. But weather data may comprise hundreds if not much more types of data, which too often are merely roughly defined.

They not recognize that statistics from months to millions of years do not explain anything, but opens a wide spectrum for manipulation. In a recent post by PH.D. Roy W. Spencer [February 16th, 2018] about: Diagnosing Climate Sensitivity Assuming Some Natural Warming, the used terms should raise alarm. Can statistics be “sensitive”? At best only if the type of statistic and duration versus “what” is named! Particular worst it gets if climate science refers to “natural”. In essence the atmospheric weather (and its statistical mean) depends on the thermodynamic state. Heat and water are the main ingredients. It is all about physics. “Natural” whether natural warming or natural climate sensibility is hoax, meaning actually “I do not know”. Fairness to oneself and the general public requires to say so: I do not know. Fantasy terms reflects either ignorance, dumbness or cheating. Roy Spencer uses both in this post as it follows (bold added):

What if a Portion of Recent Warming Was Natural?
As you might recall, the IPCC is quite certain that the dominant cause of warming since the mid-20th Century was due to anthropogenic forcing.

What does “dominant” mean? Well, I’m sure it means over 50%. This implies that they are leaving the door open to the possibility that some of the recent warming has been natural, right?
Well, we can use the above equation to do a first-cut estimate of what the diagnosed climate sensitivity would be if some fraction of the surface and deep-ocean warming was natural.  (Full Spencer text HERE)

Throughout climate science many meaningless terms are used. This is particularly problematic because it prevents to look at what matters most in climate and climate change issues: the oceans. Look at all the references attached to this post, you will find nothing.  Instead you can read at Roy Spencer the sentence:

I have heard some IPCC-type folks claim that recent anthropogenic warming could have been damped by some natural cooling mechanism.

Admitting, as long as the IPCC is superficial and is talking nonsense, any reply is difficult, also for a serious researcher as Roy Spencer. But not reflecting in any climate relevant term and definition the vastness and influence of the oceans and their low temperatures of mere + 4°Celsius, renders any discussion on man-made climate change  into a general bland chatter. That is not only sad and a great pity, but dangerous, because climate cooling is the by far more serious threat to mankind.

More about the climate definition:

„weather“ (AMS) =
___The state of the atmosphere, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and human activities.
___Popularly, weather is thought of in terms of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind.
___The “present weather” table consists of 100 possible conditions, with 10 possibilities for “past weather”

climate (AMS) =
_ The slowly varying aspects of the atmosphere–hydrosphere–land surface system.
__…suitable averages of the climate system

climate  (IPPC) =
­­­__relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years
­__relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind

climatology (AMS)   =
___Descriptive climatology deals with the observed geographic or temporal distribution of meteorological observations
___meteorological observations over a specified period of time

climate system (AMS)  =
The system, consisting of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, determining the earth’s climate as the result of mutual interactions and responses to external influences (forcing).
___ Physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved in the interactions among the components of the climate system.

climate sensitivity (AMS) =
___The magnitude of a climatic response to a perturbing influence.
___In mathematical modeling of the climate, the difference between simulations when the magnitude of a given parameter is changed.
___In the context of global climate change, the equilibrium change in global mean surface temperature following a unit change in radiative forcing.

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Court hearing on global warming! Clarity by tutorial? .

Ocean relevance was not an issue!

Post: 30th March 2018

Anthropogenic global warming (AGW) has reached the court room. A lawsuits by State of California vs BP, Chevron and others, charge that oil products are a public nuisance (court documents).  The Judge William Alsup ordered to held a Tutorial on 21st March 2018 , inter alias  concerning: “formation and melting of the ice ages, periods of historical cooling and warming, smog, ozone, nuclear winter, volcanoes, and global warming” for being introduced to “the best science now available on global warming.”

The Order did not request a tutorial on the role of the ocean. Water is what matters most in climate matters. The ocean hold 1000times more water than the atmosphere, but have only a mean temperature of about 4° Celsius (Fig. 2 & 3). 6  After a five hours hearing recorded in the page 189 long court-transcript, the court was merely introduced to the findings of IPCC since 1990, respectively AGW advocates. Even the defendants did not object but made the case: “that oil companies are not directly responsible for climate change. Rather humanity’s larger economic decisions are to blame.”

Is it worth to read the transcript? Actually: No! At best it is a summary of what IPCC and other AGW opponents are talking about. Ever since, for them is the ocean only a random issue. For example they tell the Court:

Excerpt from court-transcript: page 123f (concerning the last Century EARLY WARMING; see Fig. 5) 

BOUTROUS: So that’s that figure. And let me go into a little bit more recent period, 1850 to 2012. And, again, 1850 was the end of the little ice age. And this is really the point the Court was just making. The IPCC AR5 concludes that: “Since 1901 almost the whole world has experienced surface warming. Warming has not been linear; most warming occurred in two periods: Around 1900 to around 1940 and around 1970 onwards.” And so, again,…. (cont/)……
………..And since I knew you would ask me what caused that warming I thought I would just go with that quote because I think what they are basically saying is that in the early 20th century, while it’s unlikely that the climate was functioning – the warming was caused by the climate functioning in its natural course, internal variability, the IPCC couldn’t quantify any contributions to the warming from potential other causes, like changes in the sun or volcanos. That’s the natural forcing.
THE COURT: What does “internal variability” mean?
MR. BOUTROUS: That is their phrase for just describing the natural, natural variability in the climate without some event like a volcanic eruption, which is what they call a natural forcing sort of an event. (cont/)

That is an extreme superficial view, because the warming 1920-1940 was primarily an Arctic and Northern Hemisphere issue (see Fig. 4) and commenced together with the First World War (Fig. 5).

Another example of pure gossip one can find on page 183f:

THE COURT: Give us an example. Give us an example of a theoretical or plausible surprise out of the blue.
MR. WUEBBLES: Besides the permafrost melting?
THE COURT: Yes. Yes, that’s a good example, but give us another one.
MR. WUEBBLES: So another one would be the melting of Artic sea ice…..(cont/)
….page 184…
THE COURT: What kind?
MR. WUEBBLES: Biospheric production.
THE COURT: Oh, biosphere. Okay.
WUEBBLES: Yes. So the changes in El Niño events. You know, if we were to have a lot more El Niño events that would add to the overall warming. There’s a lot of other aspects that are surprises, things we don’t really expect but they are things we just don’t know about.

The ocean covers 71% of the globe; El Niño covers an ocean space that is a small fraction of 1%. Any ocean space has at any time a huge impact on the atmosphere and drives average air temperatures. The fact that an El Niño is a significant event, tells nothing about how the ocean contributes to warming and cooling.  Telling the Judge that “more El Niño events that would add to the overall warming”, is hardily helpful.

One should not expect that the court ruling will improve the climatic change controversy in any way. After all merely requested information and explained it at the hearing as it follows (From the transcript: Page  6 &  7):

Okay. So let me just say to you two, as well as to the public, that I read in the paper a couple of weeks ago that this was going to be like the Scopes Monkey Trial. And I was — I couldn’t help but laugh. But this is not a trial. I want everyone out there, the newspaper people, please

don’t call this a trial. This is not a trial. In these technology cases, mainly the patent cases, but not just patent, we often have these tutorials so that the poor Judge can learn some science, and it helps to understand the science….. (cont/)….This is a serious proposition to try to educate the Judge. So that’s the purpose.


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Europe’s Cold Spring – Man Made?

2nd Shivering in mid-March 2018

Posted: 17th  March 2018

The Cold’s arrive again. Only three weeks ago our post The ‘Beast from the East’ – Off-Shore windfarms pave the way” discussed the sudden cold snap in Europe, because it is highly possible that human activities at sea, contribute to unexpected low temperatures influx from the Far-East. The explanation is simple: As soon as the reginal seas across Europe have lost too much of their heat stored during the summer season, cold air from Siberian can reach Europe and establish reign for days or weeks, respectively delay the arrival of spring.

The last few days weather development support the thesis. Europe’s spring, respectively the months April, May and June are likely to show sub-temperature, as indicated in Fig. 1. Already forthcoming April the forecast indicates a significant negative anomaly (Fig. 2), with the North Sea and Baltics in focus. Why does it happen exactly in the regions? The explanation presumably stems from the various anthropogenic activities at sea. Lengthy discussed HERE:

We now briefly record the current cold snap, as mentioned by (15/17 March 2018, shortened):

The Cold’s Arrival – The 2nd Beast from the East.

Temperature drops of 10 degrees Celsius can be expected as the cold air arrives Friday into the weekend. “Sunday will be the coldest day with maximum temperatures struggling to lift above freezing across the U.K., Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, northern France and southern Scandinavia.” Wind chill values may dip as low as minus 10 degrees Celsius – equivalent to the mid-teens Fahrenheit. 

With cold air blowing over the North Sea and an upper-level pocket of cold air, areas of snow showers and squalls are once again a likelihood to the U.K, Ireland, northern France and southern Scandinavia this weekend.

Difference from the cold snap three weeks ago.

The cold air will work its way south and west into most of the rest of Europe later in the weekend (17/18 March). It is in this part of Europe where the cold will persist the longest well into the week of March 19-23. This pattern will also generate areas of snow that will persist through much of that week in southern, central and eastern Europe. Some of that snow will be moderate to heavy, not simply in the Alps, but also from parts of Germany and Poland to the Ukraine.

The phrase “Beast from the East” refers to the fact this cold air arrives on strong winds blowing east-to-west from Scandinavia over the North Sea into the British Isles and western Europe.

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Global Heat Account – Not without Shipping etc

Ships push more heat into than out of the ocean –
A major source of global warming since industrialization.

Post by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts, 10th March 2018

In a world which is getting steadily warmer it sound a good question to ask for the main source for the incremental rise in temperatures on earth. The excellent blog of Judith Curry did it (2018/03/09), while Willis Eschenbach picked up the subject at WUWT. It is worth to read both post,

Prof. Curry’s starting point is a reference to the IPCC AR5 (Report 2013) which concluded that:

It is extremely likely that more than half of the observed increase in global average surface temperature from 1951 to 2010 was caused by [humans]. The best estimate of the human induced contribution is similar to the observed warming over this period.

It is little Prof. Curry offers herself to contribute on her question where the heat is coming from. Neither does Willies Eschenbach who stress that nobody knows much about the up-and-down since the Romans, but that “ … none of those gradual temperature changes were caused by variations in CO2”. Subsequently he mentions that the sun is the source of all heat, but stress univocal:

“Now, does this show that the sun is indeed the cause of the gradual warming? ABSOLUTELY NOT. There are plenty of forces at play in even this restricted subset of climate variables, and the fact that a couple of them line up does NOT mean that one is causing the other.”

What Willis Eschenbach wants to say is simply: I do not know. Nobody knows. That sounds fair but is nevertheless unacceptable. Anyone who is aware that the earth is a water planet and water is as much essential for the weather (and climate) as the heat from the sun; and is aware of the size of the ocean with a ration to the atmosphere of 1000:1; and is aware that the mean ocean temperature is as low as about 4°C, would not exclude the ocean from any research and accounting of global heat and of global cooling.

A thorough assessment of shipping since using screw driven vessels, and other human activities at sea, would inevitable show that this contributed to global warming since the end of the LIA considerably. The tonnage has increase in 90 years by 2600% (Fig.5). A much more profound demonstration of man-made climate changes by maritime activities offer the  two World Wars; the First (1914-18) by a influencing the Ocean around Svalbard, causing a warming from 1918 to 1940 , and during the Second WW  (1939 -1945) revolving so much cold water to the sea surface that the world cooled for three decades. (see Fig. 1, 3 & 6) For details see: and

Again, Curry and Eschenbach are both excellent writers, serious and committed, but seem unable to raise the item which matters most in weather (and climate): the oceans. As Willis Eschenbach has extensive seagoing experience and regards himself as “…. a long-time ocean devotee.” , he could do more concerning the ocean-climate issue.   

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The ‘Beast from the East’ – Off-Shore windfarms paves the way – Spring 2018

Europe’s cold snap inevitable man-made? Watch out!

Post 24. February 2018

Recently we discussed here: “Europe winter free – Thanks to off-shore windfarms?”; showing that when reginal seas are cooled to ‘unusual levels’, Siberian icy cold air can easily travel to the Atlantic shore. Something similar just occurs right now outside.

Don’t believe that this spring is bound to being cold by natural cuase. If you do not see at least an attempt to consider a serious human contribution reject it as too superficial and incomplete. As shown in Fig. 1 & 2, the center of cold are the North-Sea and the Baltic Sea. For Europe they functioning like a storage-heater. During summer they take heat in, during winter they release heat. The latter is particular important to keep the west-drift working. This means, moisture warm air moves from the Atlantic east-wards toward the Ural Mountains, until it is stopped by continental cold and dry air. The weaker the maritime air is, the easier she not only gets ‘pulverized’ by the cold and dry air, but opens the path for the  ‘Beast from the East’ to travel to the Atlantic shore.

Until now science has never cared. Many posts and research remained unnoticed, for example a recent essay: HERE-2016. Highly active is the news press, but offer nothing in explanation. Here some excerpts:

­­__ Meteorologist Alex Burkill told the Evening Standard that the cold snap was likely to mirror freezing winter weather seen in March 2013 – the second coldest March recorded in more than 100 years.

    Today conditions  

 ­­__ Dominik Jung warns against such complacency and dismissive attitudes: The icy cold, also called the Russian Whip, is really going to hit starting on Sunday. Foremost nights are going to be especially cold. Low temperatures are expected to fall under double-digits below zero. Over snow covered ground minus 20 or minus 25°C are possible. Even lower temperatures are possible directly at ground level.”



__Jesper Starn and Rachel Morison at Bloomberg: Cold air flows from Siberia will send temperatures 10 degrees Celsius (18 Fahrenheit) below normal next week, when Germany, France and parts of Britain are expected to get the coldest temperatures this winter, weather forecasters said….. The freezing conditions will last through the first 10 days of March for Britain, the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia and could bring heavy snowfall, Dobson said.

There is no mentioning of any anthropogenic aspects, whether big or small, although the matter leaves hardly any room for neglecting a significant human contribution. For further information see the following links

__Validation required! Climate impact  of offshore wind turbines serious!
__Off-shore wind farm impact is not natural variabuility.

and kindly pay us another visit for any further update.

The next three Fig. demonstrate the difference between prediction and facts. (Add. 27. Feb. 20h GMT)


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Tim Ball’s lesson by court Judgement

Can the courts say something about global warming?

Post by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts, 17th February 2018

Are jurists able to deliberate climate cases? That was a question asked by Ron Clutz in a recent post (22.Dec.2017): “How many other jurists have prepared themselves for this battleground?”, referring to a discussion by Jason Scott Johnson, et al; Global Warming Advocacy Science: A Cross Examination (2010, PDF, 80 p). A very recent defamation case the court showed strength by calling the article “a poorly written opinion piece that offers views on conventional climate science”. The case was dismissed. The clear verdict was released on February 13, 2018, (Judgement ca. 23p) based on the following circumstances.  .

The Supreme Court in British Columbia/Canada had to handle a dispute between a climate warm-monger, Andrew Weaver (plaintiff), and on the other hand a climate skeptic Timothy (Tim) Ball (defendant). Both are Professors and well versed in the climate research field since long. Now the plaintiff required damage for defamation by a Tim Ball article on January 10, 2011, entitled: „Corruption of Climate Science Has Created 30 Lost Years. (full text: Judgment – Schedule A – p. 20-22).

Whether the Judge, Mr Justice Skolrood, has any in-depth knowledge about the climate change debate is hardly to say. Presumably not. His reasoning shows the professional capability of careful reading and analysis. Without calling in experts for cross-examination (Judgement p. 6/7), he made, inter alia, the general observations:

  • [60]“… despite Dr. Ball’s history as an academic and a scientist, the Article is rife with errors and inaccuracies, which suggests a lack of attention to detail on Dr. Ball’s part, if not an indifference to the truth.”

  • [63]”…that people read a 45-year-old text on climate science written by Professor Hubert Lamb”.

  • [64] “Overall, even as an opinion piece, the Article presents as poorly written and it provides little in the way of credible support for Dr. Ball’s thesis”.

Reading through the huge blog-share on climate change matters, what percentage of posts, whether pro or contra, would be characterized similar? The number would surely be high, but to what effect? Improve the climate change debate?

Prof. Tim Ball’s reaction at WUWT (14. Feb) offers little hope. His post starts as it follows:

I am extremely grateful for the judgment of a complete dismissal in the lawsuit brought against me by Andrew Weaver. It is a victory for free speech and a blow against the use of the law to silence people. As with all events, there is so much more that rarely receives attention yet is essential to understanding and improving conditions in the future.

This statement ignores the principle damage done to science in general and him in particular. The claim was rejected because of his ‘meaningless’ chatter, presumably not worse than those of Andrew Weaver. Tim Ball is certainly a serious man, but the Judge had not to look at that, but only to identify a case of defamation, which he not rejected entirely, saying:

  • [83] “….While the Article is derogatory of Dr. Weaver, it is not defamatory, in that the impugned words do not genuinely threaten Dr. Weaver’s reputation in the minds of reasonable thoughtful and informed readers”

What a blow, at least in this case. Let us end the discussion at this point, with the  reminder that this blog challenged Tim Ball twice concerning the meaning of the term climate; HERE in July/2015HERE October/2015, and HERE January/2018. When his 2011-text emphasise “that he has taught science for the last 30 years”, which means since 1981, he should have realized that all sections of scince is talking about climate but not able to ensure that the use of the word ‘climate’ is based on reasonable scientific definitions. Lamb and Hare (see Figures) stressed that Cliamte used to be a layman’s term.

Whether jurists are able to say something about global warming, may be only secondary to experienced judicial deliberation, which the Supreme Court in British Columbia could demonstrate in the case Weaver vs Ball fairly well .


F. Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) on: DEFINITIONS OF CLIMATE

Canada’s most distinguished geographer and climatologists,
the late Professor F. Kenneth Hare, explained  that climate
was a layman’s word, and that the professional use is still erratic

Extract from section: Climatic Variability and Change (ca. 1984)*

“The word climate is often seen as ambiguous, because of confusion with related words like weather, or vague climatic conditions. In fact it is capable of fairly exact definition. In recent years, moreover, public usage seems to have moved closer to that of the professional.

In lay usage, climate usually stands for the expectation of weather on time-scales comparable with a human lifetime; it is the layman’s sense of the sequence of weather he or she may expect at a given locality. As such it governs countless daily decisions, from choice of personal clothing to the work calendar of the farmer. Habitually this expectation is taken for granted. Only when unexpected weather occurs does the ordinary citizen become acutely aware of the stresses that the atmosphere’s behaviour can bringsometimes to the point where the question is asked (as it is below): `is the climate changing?’ This question arises from the suspicion that recent weather lies outside normal expectation, that is, outside the present climate.

Professional usage is still erratic, but usually starts with the same idea of expectation. It is assumed

  1. that a climate exists at any given moment; and

  2. that the integrated experience of the recent past specifies this climate.

We tend to assume that the near future will resemble this recent past. For lack of any better guide we accept a dictum attributed to Whitehead: how the past perishes is how the future becomes. We think it highly probable that past experience will repeat itself. In effect, we assume that the climate of today will endure for an undefined period.”

*) F. Kenneth Hare; ca. 1984; Climatic Variability and Change,  “SCOPE 27 Climate Impact Assessment – Studies of the Interaction of Climate and Society”,   Preface by: ROBERT W. KATES;  available via:

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Europe winter free – Thank to off-shore windfarms?

Climate Science ignorance helps to keep heavy cold at bay

Post: 3rd February 2018, by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

It seems time to praise science, but only if you do not care and prefer warming. In Europe winter are getting warmer at a pace faster than global average. The current winterproves it again. Whereas North America and Siberia saw record braking freezing temperatures in early 2018 (more), Europe is spared of wintery weather until now (Fig. 1). The most likely reason is increasing ocean use, particularly by off-shore windfarms and shipping, which churn the sea like moving spoon in a hot coffee pot. While climatology is not able to consider this mechanism, any cold from the Arctic or Siberia is kept at bay.  That should have been common knowledge since long, at least since the commencing days of World War II.

Actually the story is simple. Since the Little Ice Age has ended around 1850, the world has been getting warmer. By the end of the 1930s the temperatures, particularly in the Norther Hemisphere, increased to level close to current values. That stopped abruptly during the first war winter 1939/40 (Fig. 2, 3). The cause is to attribute to excessive ocean penetration due to naval warfare on a grand scale, bombs, sea mines, depth charges, many million shells, and thousands of vessels, navigating, fighting, mine-operation, surveillance, and training. However, the impact on the winter conditions than and today seems contradicting. Winter 1939/40 was in many locations the coldest for up to 200 years or ever recorded, while currently climatology will soon declare Europe’s winter 2017/18 the warmest ever. The tragic is that both cases have the same source, man-made climatic changes, but science does not know, and is unable to inform politics and the general public correctly.

The way man has contributed to the extreme climate conditions in winter 1939/40 and 2017/18 is based on the same physically-dynamic process. The starting point is the intake of heat during the summer season in the reginal seas around Europe, particularly in the North- and Baltic Sea, which will be released during the subsequent winter. This ‘natural’ process is meanwhile greatly enhanced by human activities. The more or the longer the atmosphere gets an extra heat input, the less any Arctic or Siberian cold will get a chance to govern the winter in Europe. But the stored heat is not unlimited. If the available heat is released too quickly, the result reverses. When reginal seas are cooled to ‘unusual levels’, Siberian icy cold air can easily travel to the Atlantic shore. That occurred in winter 1939/40. As an example then and now, see Fig. 4 & 5.

The winter meanwhile 78 years ago, could easily explain how reginal climate works. One needs only to imagine the picture of a baby bath with too warm water to bath the baby. The water will be turned around until the temperature is right for the baby. The longer it is turned the colder it gets. Is it so difficult to acknowledge and apply the every day experience with a too hot soup? The warring naval forces did the same across the coastal seas in Europe. It took only four months, and the first WWII winter run amok. Those responsible for this event, in first place the German Reichskanzler Adolph Hitler, should have been identified as a person appropriate to be considered as ‘climate change criminal’ since long.

OK! Mr. A. Hitler may never have been charged due to insufficient scientific advice and being a crackbrained monster. But ignoring the case entirely raises the question of gross negligence. WWII contributed to a global cooling from 1940 to the mid-1970s. Ocean uses in all its facets, is likely to have contributed to the global warming over the last 150 years. The vast installation of hundreds of off-shore windfarms during the last decade is certainly a contributing factor to the higher than the global warming of the seas around Europe. In the North and Baltic Seas temperatures increased five to six times faster than the global average over the past 25 years, and three times faster in the Black and Mediterranean Seas. (Related Essay in PDF) Science spend many billions to prove a correlation between CO2 and global warming, but not one cent on how shipping, fishing industry and naval activities  have influenced weather and climate conditions since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850.  Climate science behaves highly irresponsible.


Links to nine Chapters on Naval War during the
1st war winter 1939/40. Book pages 13 to 104


Furter Reading  in PDF:  Offshore Wind-Parks and Northern Europe’s Mild Winters: Contribution from Ships, Fishery, et cetera? in Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering 6 (2016) 46-56 ;

___Climatology fails to consider a main contributor – Naval Warfare

___Why Europe is warming up faster than elsewhere?  

___Suicidal ignorance – Weather extremes in WWII,

___Off shore wind farm impact is not natural variability,

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Warming & Climate – Confusing Terminology – Accidentally?

Judith Curry’s reflection:  “Well, increasing temperatures say nothing about the causes of climate change.”

Post 15th January 2018

The terminology climate science use is all but helpful. Is it accidentally or consciously misleading? There is no scientifically sustainable definition of weather, climate, and natural variability (MORE). Only when it comes to “warming”, we know that it is connected to a rise in air temperature, but with numerous variations at not less locations.

Someone who didn’t bother about precision and details, is James Hansen, who already in 1988 in testimony before U.S. Congress, warning that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations would lead to spiraling global warming said: that it was 99 percent certain that the warming trend was not a natural variation but was caused by a buildup of carbon dioxide and other artificial gases in the atmosphere. (Fig. 1), and that there was no ”magic number” that showed when the greenhouse effect was actually starting to cause changes in climate and weather.

Almost every explanation beyond the fact of the general warming trend since the mid-19th Century was superficial and largely meaningless, including the 99% claim of CO2 certainty. Only two years later his colleagues C.K. Folland et al concluded the IPCC (1990) Chapter 7, Summary on “Observed Climate Variations and Change (Fig. 2) with the notion: Because we do not understand the reasons for these past warming events it is not yet possible to attribute a specific proportion of the recent, smaller, warming to an increase of greenhouse gases.” (Fig. 3)

The contrast to James Hansen could hardly be greater, but IPCC overcome this problem quickly, readily with the next IPCC Report in 1995. The ‘trick’ is explained by a recent post at “Climate Etc.” (Jan/03/2018) titled “Manufacturing consensus: the early history of the IPCC”. Prof. Judith Curry reviews a book by Bernie Lewis that shows the scientific debate on detection and attribution was effectively quelled by the IPCC Second Assessment Report (1995). Indeed Chapter 8 does not hesitate to establish an initial evidence “of an anthropogenic climate signal – if models are correct” (Fig.5). The entire Chapter 8 Conclusion see Fig 5 & 7.



As a few excerpts from news report in 1989 show the pressue to establish a ‘greenhouse scenario” run high. (Fig. 8, 9, 10)

Actually the modeling is about increased air temperature, as indicated in the final paragraphs of Chapter 8.  And here the notion of J. Curry comes in: ”increasing temperatures say nothing about the causes of climate change.” That is great but too little. One can only identify the “causes of climate change” if a meaningful explanation of the term is established. That has never been the case (See below: EXCERPT from Otherwise the discussion fouls the general public. ‘Warming’ and ‘climate’ should not arbitrarily mix up. It needs to be clear that temperature rise is a rise in temperature and nothing else. A pitty that even a excellent professional as Judith Curry seem not able to grasp the point.

  A decade ago Prof. Roger Pielke Sr. started his invaluable blog with a post titled “What is Climate? Why Does it Matter How We Define Climate?” (July 11, 2005). Repeatedly he picked up the issue during the active running time of the blog until November 2012.  He was the best in this respect, but eventually did not manage to offer sustainable concept of weather relevant definitions. In “Physics Today” (Nov.2008, p.54f) he wrote:
    “For many, the term “climate” refers to long-term weather statistics. However, more broadly and more accurately, the definition of climate is a system consisting of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere”. That is as meaningless as the official definition in the UNFCCC (Climate Convention, Article 1 (para 3), 1992):

“Climate system” means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.

The term “climate” remains meaningless, but weather and nature would fit better.

A more recent example is in a post be Tim Ball & Tom Harris at WUWT (Dec.01; 2017), which stress that: Some simple definitions are important for the public to understand, while offering in detail only scrap of no substance, namely:

Weather is the total of the atmospheric conditions at any given moment. It includes thousands of inputs from cosmic radiation from deep space, heating energy from the bottom of the oceans and everything in between.

Climate is the average weather conditions, and how they change, at a given location, over an extended period of time. While one can describe “daily climate,” obtained by averaging the 24-hourly readings or averaging the minimum and maximum readings in a 24-hour period, much longer periods are normally studied by climatologists.

 No serious science community benefit from such nonsense. At least one and a while efforts are made to categories ‘Climate’ differently, as recently at Science Matters (11Jan2018), when assuming that “that global warming/climate change theory properly belongs in the field of social studies and thus should demonstrate a similar cycle.” – continue reading.  That would also make the use of the term CLIMATE in the global warming debate obsolete.

EXCERPT from “”:

The starting point is that “climate” is generally defined as average weather (by WMO and others) without defining “weather” in the first place (discussed HERE and HERE). It is a comparison between apples and pears. One item has a physical background; the other item is a ‘man-made’ technical mean, which we know as “statistic”. “Weather” consists of many dozen components (AMS-Glossary), which can be described in many hundred ways (see HERE). The statistics of single physical element, or specification of atmospheric behavior, remain an abstract mean.

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Suicidal ignorance – Weather extremes in WWII

Completely irresponsible not to understand how the naval war caused an ice age winter 1939/40

Post 02 December 2017

The recent climate talks in Bonn (COP23) worked on the pledge to limit global warming below two degrees Celsius. The target is extreme naïve, as long as climate science is not able and willing to analyze and explain what happened to the weather in Europe in the first few months since World War Two (WWII) started September 1st 1939.

Europe suddenly experienced its coldest winter in more than 100 years.  The change came suddenly and completely unexpected.  Shortly later the British scientist A. J. Drummond expressed his amazement as it follows: “The present century has been marked by such a widespread tendency towards mild winters that the ‘old-fashioned winters’, of which one had heard so much, seemed to have gone forever. The sudden arrival at the end of 1939 of what was to be the beginning of a series of cold winters was therefore all the more surprising”. 70 years have passed and science is completely ignorant on an evidently human interference in weather and climatic conditions due to naval warfare. Talking about warming without understanding cooling by man is suicidal ignorance, and terribly irresponsible.

Why Is the War Winter 1939/40 particularly interesting? (Details see 10 pages PDF)

The suddenness is what counts most. From one day to the other man befell the sea with unknown, widespread brutal force.  Only four months into WWII, Northern Europe was back in a small ice age. Numerous meteorological extreme conditions reveal a strong relationship to the high level of naval warfare activities.  For example:

__The regions most affected in Europe were those close to North Sea and Baltic. (Fig. 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 13)
__Highest sea ice extent in the North Sea (German Bight) in several decades.
__The first entire freezing of the Baltic Sea in the 20th Century.
__Record cold in Poland – Siedlce, -41,0°C, 11 January 1940 (Fig.13)
__Moscow lowest ever recorded −42.1 °C (−43.8 °F) in January 1940 (see Wikipedia).

   Details to Winter 1939/40
Chapter C-1
Chapter C-2
Chapter C-3
Chapter C-4
Chapter C-5
Chapter C-6
Chapter  C-7
Chapter C-8
Chapter C-9

What had happened? Thousands of ships crisscrossed the North Sea and Baltic day and night, ordered to fight, to monitor, to train. Cruising and fighting warships conducted a gigantic “field study”. Huge masses of water were agitated, and consequences were quickly felt. The warmth stored during the summer season, especially in the North Sea and Baltic was released more rapidly than unusually.  Siberian icy air could reach Western Europe’s shores.

 Although the extreme winter of 1939/40 offers a unique opportunity to understand how easy and quickly man can modify and change weather conditions and climate, the matter is completely neglected. Although the WWII parties collected data abundantly, climate research by several hundred universities and institutions, comprising several ten-thousand scientists has never undertaken efforts to analyze the “field study”, and to explain why the weather ran amok. Instead they scare the general public and governments with “global warming”, supporting the annual collection of $100 billion a year to help developing countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and blame the effects on climate change. Towards those figures understanding the war winter weather 1939/40 would cost almost nothing.

Not able or willing either to confirm or exclude definitely a link between naval war and weather modification indicates is a miserable failure. If the situation would not be so serious, one would tend to speak of a hoax.

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High Red Sea warming due to human activities?

Is Red Sea warming exceeding the global rate a matter of climate change?

Posted: 06 November 2017

The warmest semi-enclosed sea in the Northern Hemisphere is more warming than the global average. The Red Sea basin experienced a rapid warming, at an overall rate of 0.17 ± 0.07 °C per decade, exceeding the global warming rate of 0.11°C per decade. The research team from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) HERE, mention as major concern that ocean warming with climate change is creating challenges for organisms. WUWT etc. picked up the story.

Of more interest is the notion “that the impacts of warming are likely to be greatest in semi-enclosed seas, which tend to support warming rates faster than average”, if the researcher would have at least tried to say: Why? Unfortunately they do not, although it is worth a bet that intensive shipping is a serious contributor to the excessive Red Sea warming. Several hundred sizable vessels navigate the Rad Sea at any time. Down to 15 meters each sizable vessel stirs the water up-side-down. The ships wake is evident.  In the light of our last post concerning the increased North Sea warming: “Off shore wind farm impact is not natural variability”, some consideration is inevitable.

To begin with, the North Sea and Red Sea have only one thing in common, both are regarded as semi-enclosed waters. In all other major features, depth, temperatures, seasonality and salinity, the differences are huge.  The Red Sea is about 2250 km long and, at its widest point, 355 km wide, with maximum depth of 3,040 m and an average depth of 490 m. While the ocean means temperature account for a mere 4°C, the Rd Sea offers a very different picture. The average surface water temperature during the summer is about 26 °C in the north and 30 °C in the south, with about  2 °C variation during the winter months. The water body temperatures increase to about 27° at the bottom (Fig. 2 & 5). The overall average is 22 °C.  As the rainfall is extremely low, averaging six centimeter per year, the Red Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world, owing to high evaporation, with an average salinity of 40 ‰. Highly remarkable is the uniformity of the water body over all seasons, very different to the North Sea.

Actually there are not many options to explain the much higher warming of the Red Sea versus global ocean warming. The basic condition has certainly to do that we lock at a confined sea area. Excessive heat pushed into the sea body by shipping or other ocean uses remains in the region – at least for some time or over annual seasons-, different from open ocean space and coastal bights. The high salinity of the sea surface layer, which increases the heaviness of the water, could increase the sinking ability of the water.

After all it there is a good chance – and necessity – to identify an serious contributor to excessive Red Sea warming: ocean use by shipping, fishing and deep sea exploration.  Offering more clarification in this respect the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology could serve the climate change debate greatly.

Reference: Verinica. Chaidez,  D. Dreano, S. Agusti, C. M. Duarte & I. Hoteit (KAUST- Aug.2017);
Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature”



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Off shore wind farm impact is not natural variability

Ignoring off shore industry on climate change is irresponsible

Post: 23 October 2017 –

Climatology considers ‘natural variability’ as a valuable factor in climate change matters. Ignoring any human role in this respect is irresponsible.  The latest big issue is floating off shore wind turbines with a structure about 78 meters submerged and 15 meters in diameters. Although a massive obstacle in a permanent moving marine environment the impact and change in ‘natural variability’ in climate change matters is completely ignored.

The concern has been raised in a recent post: ”Why Europe is warming up faster than elsewhere?”  The matter is simple. Off shore installations affect sea temperatures and salinity structure at many locations to about 60 meters below the sea surface.  In Europe the number of off shore wind turbines will account 4000 by the end of 2017. The inevitable consequence is at hand:  “Northern European winters are getting warmer and warmer at a rate higher than global average” as analyzed in a paper by A. Bernaerts (2016).

Now the impact on sea level structure increase further. The world’s first floating wind farm opened on 18 October 2017, off the east coast of Scotland. The 6MW turbines rise 175m above sea level, and extend 78m below the surface of the water, tied to the sea bed by cables. The anchors used to stabilize the turbines stand at 16m and weigh 111 tons. (Details)  Inevitable huge water masses of different temperature and salinity will change between the various sea levels. As an example see Fig. 2 (Northern North Sea – Section 1-4). The sea surface will warm or cool and either warm or cool the air temperature above the scene.

Any use of the oceans by mankind has an influence on thermo-haline structures within the water column from a few cm to 10m and more.  Not even raising and investigating this mechanism is a demonstration that the use of the term “natural variability” is to hide pseudoscience.

___A. Bernaerts (2016), Offshore Wind-Parks and Northern Europe’s Mild Winters: Contribution from Ships, Fishery, et cetera? Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering 6, p. 46-56, HERE and HERE

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The axis of climate evil by Paul Krugman impugned

Not bad faith may destroy civilization but ignorance
in ocean matters.

Posted: 13th August 2017;  Amanded 14/09 – below –
Links to WUWT and Fabio Maximus -below –

One can only highly appreciate how Paul Krugman requires a rational world to take urgent action to limit climate change in a recent NYT Opinion (Fig.1, 12/13 Aug.2017). His conclusion that the ‘tweeter in chief’ and the Republicans rejecting not just scientific evidence but also obvious lived experience, sound good, is true, but unfortunately in no way better as arguments from those he addresses as climate deniers or climate skeptics. They are mere nay-sayers to all scientific efforts in climate matters, or cry loudly hoax as the old Senator Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.).

To be clear; climate change is real. Climate change means a change in statistics, and climate statistics have permanently changed over the last several 100 million years. They have also changed since global industrialization started about 200 years ago. One eminent question is, to understand and minimize the role of humankind in this scenario; although the far more important question is, in what direction we are heading. Will it be warmer, will it be colder? The latter does not cross Paul Krugman’s mind. He is only able to discuss his points on the global-warming basis, and that is as ignorant as crying HOAX.

For 30 years we are deceived to believe human-caused warming of the atmosphere. That is naive and recklessly ignorant of the global proportion. Weather and climate is based on water in the air and in the sea;  the ratio is 1:1000. More global warming requires many dozen years. The status of the 4°C warm ocean can shoot the world in a new ice age in few months. More than 95% of our past (Fig. 2) was much, very much colder than our present. A minor shift in this direction is definitely more and quicker destroying civilization as anything else, which we should understand and know pretty soon.

There is no axis of climate evil hampering the debate, but an axis of ignorance on all sides of the spectrum.

FURTHER READING – added (14/08) –
___At WUWT : Paul Krugman shows why the climate campaign failed

___FROM :  the Fabius Maximus website; CONCLUDING:
This is propaganda, characteristic of how activists have conducted their campaign to build support for massive public policy action to fight climate change. They’ve been at it since Hansen’s 1988 Senate testimony. It has not worked.

Amanded 14/09 – THE NEW YORK TIMES -Sept.13, 2017

>>>>>>>EXTRACT>>>>>>>> “The other low-probability, high-impact threat is climate change fueled by increased human-caused carbon emissions. The truth is, if you simply trace the steady increase in costly extreme weather events — wildfires, floods, droughts and climate-related human migrations — the odds of human-driven global warming having a devastating impact on our planet are not low probability but high probability.”

Trump’s Folly

Thomas L. Friedman
SEPT. 13, 2017 – NYT


Dear Mr. Friedman,
Could you kindly consider the question:“One eminent question is, to understand and minimize the role of humankind in this scenario; although the far more important question is, in what direction we are heading. Will it be warmer, will it be colder?”

More see POST above!


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Skillful climate prediction resides in the ocean

To understand and prevent anthropogenic climatic change by
sea activities check the
impact of naval warfare during WWI & WWII

Posted: 27th July 2017

A recent paper by Shuai-Lei Yao et al (June 2017) explains: Global warming can be directly linked to ocean surface temperature changes, which is characterized by two weak slowdowns in the mid-twentieth century and early twenty-first century and two strong accelerations in the early and late twentieth century. But instead of considering the possible impact man’s ocean activities during the last 150 years, they merely acknowledge that “the cooling in the mid-twentieth century and distinct intensity differences between the slowdowns and accelerations remain unclear” (Nature, 2017).

While it is challenging to assess the impact of screw driven boats and vessels on the sea surface temperature, two of the four temperature shifts mentioned by Shuai-Lei Yao are strongly connected to the two World Wars, namely 1914-1918, which contributed to a global warming from 1918-1939 and 1939-1940, which may have caused a global cooling from 1940 to 1970. These two events penetrated the sea in a much more intensive manner as peacetime shipping and fishing would do. Even the scenarios between WWI and WWII are very different, but the difference is useful to demonstrate the correlation to the climatic shifts in question.

During the First World War naval warfare happened mainly around Great Britain. The sea temperature and salinity structure of the water body was changed, which all traveled northward towards the Arctic Ocean. Since 1918 air temperatures around Svalbard accelerated strongly, subsequently warming up the Northern Hemisphere until 1939 (in the U.S. until 1933). Naval activities in Europe caused in substantial shift in the ocean structure of the Nordic Sea and adjacent Arctic Ocean. (More HERE)

The naval war impact on climate during World War II was twofold, namely the three extreme winter  1939/40, 1940/41 and 1914/42 in Europe that started the global cooling for over three decades, and the naval war across the North Atlantic from 1939-1945 and in the Western Pacific from 1942 to 1945. (More HERE) The winters were caused by exhausting the reginal seas from the heat store during the summer much earlier than usually.  The more serious impact on climate came with ocean wide naval activities. The ocean movements are highly sensitive to temperature and salinity structure. Only the most upper sea surface level sustains modest global air temperatures. Lower levels of a few dozen meters are colder, and the entire ocean with an average depth of about 3’300 meters is only +4° Celsius warm. Naval war penetrated the sea down to the bottom of the sea, which could be 10’000 meters.

Once naval war changed the sea structure the surface temperature is likely to change on multi-decadal timescales, which is with regard to the 20th Century closely related to post WWI warming 1918 to 1939, and the post WWII cooling 1940 to 1970. These two periods show how easy human activities can change climate, and that the often heard claim of “natural variability” is merely a long-standing mystery. When Marius Årthun et al (June 2017) observe that “the North Atlantic is the key provider of a predictable northern climate” they should extent their interest in the impact of human ocean activities. Even the newly appointed U.S. Energy Secretary Rick Perry considers ocean waters as control knob in climatic matters (CNBC-interview). At least some progress is made toward acknowledging that climate prediction resides in the ocean.

Main References



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Why Europe is warming up faster than elsewhere?

Climatology fails to consider a main contributor –
Maritime activities

Posted 1st June 2017

Activity at sea, whether by shipping, fishing or offshore drilling and windfarms is a big climate change issue. Not for climate research, ignoring this anthropogenic aspect completely. In the last few decades, Europe has warmed not only faster than the global average, but also faster than expected from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases, says B-W. Dong, (et al., March,2017), which is known for some time (van Oldenborgh et al, 2009) . But how is it possible? The beloved culprit GHG is equally distributed around the globe.
On the other hand the EEA [European Environment Agency] observed (Fig. 1): Over the past 25 years the rate of increase in sea surface temperature in all European seas has been about 10 times faster than the average rate of increase during the past century. In five European seas the warming occurs even more rapidly. In the North and Baltic Seas temperature rose five to six times faster than the global average over the past 25 years, and three times faster in the Black and Mediterranean Seas. ( see: EEA-update 2015). Those are facts that must not be ignored (see PDF from: Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering ; Volume 7, 2016 and Box below).

Abbreviations:  sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE),
anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer).

Many ten-thousand screw driven vessels navigate the sea around Europe daily. Many thousand installations at sea, down to 100 meters and more, alter the highly variable sea structure concerning temperature and salinity day and night, during summer and winter. But nowhere is this an issue. The B-W. Dong paper restricts the investigation on ‘rapid summer warms’, with the meager result that: “The response to the increase in GHGs is mainly related to direct impact on clear sky downward longwave radiation and associated cloud and surface feedbacks. In response to changes in SST/SIE, it is the increased water vapour over Western Europe that leads to surface warming with positive surface and cloud feedbacks resulted from surface drying and the reduction in cloud cover.” That is hardly more informative as van Oldenborgh concluded back in 2009: ‘climate predictions for western Europe probably underestimate the effects of anthropogenic climate change’. Many dozen papers have been published ever since on the summer warming (see B-W. Dong), improving little.

It seems high time that climatology is willing to adopt a more focused approach. On one hand summer is by far the most difficult time period due to the impact of the sun. Look instead to the winter season and for example to the norther part of Europe and it is possible to explain that “Northern European winters are getting warmer and warmer at a rate higher than global average”, due to activity by man at sea, explained in detail by A. Bernaerts: HERE & in BOX BELOW

___ B.-W. Dong, et al (March 2017): Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe
___G. J. van Oldenborgh et al (2009): Western Europe is warming much faster than expected
___Bernaerts, A. (2016): Offshore Wind-Parks and Northern Europe’s Mild Winters: Contribution from Ships, Fishery, et  cetera?  Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering ; Volume 7, Number 1, Jan.-Feb. 2017 (Serial Number 24), via the following LINKS:
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Skeptics fail – realizes Tim Ball

“Why have skeptics countering the AGW meme
for few decades, but to little avail”

Post 06 April 2017

About a recent hearing on climate science by a House of Representative committee on 29th March, Tim Ball analyzed at WUWT “We Won Climate Battles, but Are Not Winning the Climate War: Here’s Why”.

The views were 1:3 at the expert table. One AGW proponent, M. Mann versus J. Curry, J. Christi, and R. Pielke jr, opposing (see image below). Although Tim Ball regards Mann’s claims as scientifically incorrect and the result of false computer model simulation, he assumes that Mann presented his case better and “won in the eyes of uninformed observers”, due to the inability of the “deniers” to provide definitive answers, and that most skeptics would not have done any better.

But why fail skeptics so thoroughly, and the distinguished Tim Ball as well, with his 25 years’ experience, as depict in his essay impressively. The main reason is that they or ‘deniers’ handle the climate change issue as superficial as main-stream climatology does, which is still largely stuck in a narrow minded view of 20th Century meteorology, for example:
__Neither side cares about reasonable definitions, respectively what is offered as terms for weather and climate are empty phrases, useless for any scientific work. (More on CLIMATE DEFINITION)
__If climate science is not able to explain climate events they refer to the term ’natural variability’; unable or unwilling to recognize that it is a physical process. (More on NATURAL VARIABILITY)

These two profound failures results from the fact that the oceans, as the driver of climate, is by far too studiously ignored in the debate over the last few decades, at least does not receive the observation and research investment, this vast weather and climate-machine requires. Back in 1942 H.U. Sverdrup told meteorologists that:

……the energy that maintains the atmospheric circulation is
to be greatly supplied by the oceans
“Oceanography for Meteorologists”, New York 1942, page 223.] Cited HERE 

Tim Ball analyzed at WUWT


Dr. Tim Ball on: „Generalization, Specialization and Climatology”. Does it mean he explains what climate is?  Jul 13 2015


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‘Natural variability’, is scientific nonsense

The most popular climate rule, ‘natural climate variability’, is utter nonsense.

 In a recent post about global warming or climate change, Roy Spencer assumes that “we will not have much more scientific confidence ten years from now”. The problem is obvious when he wonders:  “How much of recent warming has been natural?” He is not alone.

Source: Roy W. Spencer, Ph.D., March 24th, 2017

The climatologist likes to use the term ‘natural climate variability’, which is said to arise from two different sources: (1) internal variability from interactions among components of the climate system, for example, between the ocean and the atmosphere, and (2) natural external forcing, such as variations in the amount of radiation from the Sun. (Details: That is a complete irrelevant approach.

 The global weather system is working according to the law of physics. The major components are water and heat. ‘Natural climate variability’, is screaming nonsense. In our previous post (HERE) we site C.F. Brooks (1918): At all times, the diverse temperatures of water, land, and snow surfaces control weather details, which, when long continued, become large features “. The sentence is clear and leaves no room for ‘natural variability’.

 The fact that the system is highly complex does not allow talking nonsense. Actually the inability to reasonable assessing and modeling the system is due to the largeness of the ocean water. With regard to the global heat system the ratio is roughly 1:1000, which means – very generally speaking – ocean observing may require a system that is one thousand-times larger than that currently used for observing the atmosphere. But instead of using a meaningless and misleading term “natural variability”, it is better to admit shortcomings, respectively to explain: ‘oceans-govern-climate’, and that more understanding and care for the oceans may minimize anthropogenic climate changes by improper ocean uses.

Roy Spencer: “The Global Warming Debate Spectrum”, March 24th, 2017 

Judith Curry: “Decadal Climate Variability” 

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U.S. extreme winter 1917/18

A Link between Atlantic sea-ice 1917
and US winter 1917/18?

Post: March 26, 2017

On one hand the Atlantic sea ice extent during summer 1917 is the only one ever observed (previous post), on the other hand only few month later the United States east of the Rockies winter 1917/18 was remarkably cold. It started with an unusual autumn, explained C.F. Brooks (1918): “The advance guard of our cold winter appeared on August 8 when a strong winter type of anticyclone, or “high,” entered the United States from the Canadian Northwest”.  Could that mean that naval warfare in Europe via the low Arctic winter temperature 1916/17 (see previous post) , or sea ice condition summer 1917 in the North Atlantic,  contributed to a record cold winter in the United States?

The 11-pages essay by C.F. Brooks mentions: “CONTROL OF THE WEATHER BY SURFACE TEMPERATURES. At all times, the diverse temperatures of water, land, and snow surfaces control weather details, which, when long continued, become large features. These surfaces affect not only the temperatures and moisture content of the winds, but also control the paths and strengths of cyclones and anticyclones. Water surfaces, whenever warm relative to the surrounding temperatures, always become centers of cyclonic activity and, therefore, are stormy. …cont” (PDF-HERE)

Naval war in Europe had a pronounced effect on sea water temperatures around Great Britain and in Northern North Atlantic; a contributing link to US winter condition 1917/18 is not impossible – if one takes Brooks’ remark seriously.

Charles F. Brooks; The “Old-Fashioned” Winter of 1917-18; Source: Geographical Review,Vol. 5, No. 5 (May, 1918), pp. 405-414 (free download PDF)

NYT 1977; The Winter of 1917–18 Was a Cold One…

Access to sea-ice-page starting 1901,

Posted in Uncategorized

Extraordinary sea ice case 1917 ignored

North Atlantic sea ice in summer 1917 could
teach climate science many lessons.

Post March 15, 2017;  Source:

Never has such a high sea ice extent been observed in the North Atlantic as in summer 1917 (Fig.1a-1b). This exceptional case has never been investigated. Worst! Science seems not to have taken notice of it, even though thorough understanding of the event could possibly answer two important questions concerning climate change:
FIRST: Contribute the late icing and subsequent melting process to the sudden extraordinary warming at Svalbard and polar region since winter 1918/19, (Fig.2)?
SECOND: Contributed the naval war around Great Britain from1914 to 1918 (Fig. 3) to the exceptional icing, which lasted until 1939/40 (Fig. 4)? [A detailed  WWI account –HERE]

Fig. 1b
Fig. 1c

Although air temperatures at Svalbard fell to all-time record low in winter 1917, sea ice conditions in March were usual (Fig. 1a). In general annual sea ice extent is highest in April, but succeeded average already in April 1917, but continued to rise to an unknown high level in May and June of 2017, which presumably has not happen for more than 200 years or longer. Even in late July the sea ice remained at an unusual high level. This late and extensive icing process may have had a pronounced impact and ocean water structure, from sea level to may hundred meter depth, which could have influenced the most significant climatic change in the 20th Century, namely the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere warming that started 18 months later in winter 1918/19 (Fig. 4).

Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Interesting that Willis Eschenbach observed a significant temperature discontinuity in the Northern North Atlantic at Vardo/Norway (Fig. 5) between 1917 and 1920. But he offers no explanation, neither mentions the naval war in Europe, nor the exceptional sea ice in summer 1917. A pity, the climatic developments in the North Atlantic during WWI could teach climate sciences many important lessons.

Fig. 4
Fig. 5
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Japan under fire – cold is guaranteed – war-winter 1944/45

Japan under fire – cold is guaranteed – war-winter 1944/45

Posted March 10. 2017 – Comments welcome

The easiest way to grasp how climate works is to: Shell and bomb Japan severely over a couple of weeks and you will get an extreme cold winter in Japan. Here is the proof.  Since late autumn 1944 the Allies warfare machinery could target location and ports in Japan, and merchant and war ships in all sea areas surrounding the island country.  Immediately the winter 1944/45 (Dec/Jan/Feb) became the coldest on record since data were taken regularly, which should not come as surprise. (Fig. 1,2, and 7).

All sea areas around Japan are very deep and very cold. The average sea water temperature will hardly exceed 5 to 6 ° Celsius. Only the very top sea surface layer is up to about 15° warmer in the southern region (24°N), and only remotely higher in the North (40°N). But when several thousand merchant and warships, as well as many ten-thousand warplanes operate above, and below the sea surface, the extreme thin surface layer is ‘destroyed’ and replaced by much colder water.

Figure 4

The immediate result was inevitable. Japan’ winter 1944/45 (DJF) was the coldest on record.  The deviation from average is very pronounced and particularly significant as it has to be attributed to man-made cause. How can climate change ever be understood, if science is unwilling and unable to understand and acknowledge such easy case on anthropogenic climate change?

Figure 6  Figure 7 Figure 8

More about WWII in the Pacific and Climate Change >>HERE>>

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Judith Curry explains inherent flaws of computer models

Oceans leave computer predictions no chance

A paper by Judith Curry explains inherent flaws of computer models
predicting future climate change (GWPF, Feb. 2017)

Post February 28, 2017

Not the ocean dimension and system is primarily to blame for flawed climate models but science, which does not recognizing that they have far too few data, even worst, not even been able to acknowledge that the ocean is the ultimate key to understand and protect climate from human influence.

Figure 2

 A previous post appraised the clear language by Dr. Judith Curry in a BBC radio- interview on climate science’s inability and unwillingness to explain the warm-up 1910-1940 and cooling 1940 to 1970.  Few days ago the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) released her 30 page long paper “CLIMATE MODELS for the layman”.  The paper emphasizes: The IPCC does not have convincing explanations for previous 30-year periods in the 20th century, notably the warming from 1910 to 1940 and the grand hiatus of 1940–1975”. We addressed the matter HERE.  Nevertheless the paper’s deficiency is its ignorance of ocean matters, while the little that is said, shows a far too narrow view.

 At page 8 the paragraph ‘chaos and natural internal climate variability’ mention as external forcing solar variations, volcanic eruptions or changes in atmospheric composition such as an increase in carbon dioxide, but not the oceans. They are merely addressed with reference to El Niño/La Niña, and as internal processes within the climate system (internal variability). That indicates gross ignorance. The El Niño phenomenon is only an extreme small fraction of the ocean dimension and within the ocean system, as each square-meter at the sea surface and any cubic-meter at any ocean-depth play a comparable role all over the world.

 In so far we recommend reading Guest essay by Mike Jonas at WUWT on ocean heat, which explains the intake on a daily basis, whereby solar energy is absorbed into the top fraction of a millimetre of the ocean then mixes (conducts and convects) into the top 5-10m only, and nearly all of it stays in just the top (see Fig. 2).

On the other hand Mike Jones is wrong if he subsequently assumes that during every subsequent night, all heat is lost, back into the atmosphere. This assumption ignores that immediately after any heat intake, the warmed-up water is part of the horizontal and vertical sea current system and furthermore may be pushed down by sea waves (~ 3 Bft.+) or propeller driven vessels (or other human activities) to much greater depths. For example, a hurricane can push water from the sea surface layer down to about 50 meters. From there the water moves on, and the heat may only released back to the atmosphere after several days or many years. In this way international shipping presumably has significantly contributed to the global warming since the late 20th Century. Climate models must fail if not feed correspondingly.  

Climate Models For The Layman:

GWPF Press Release:

WUWT – Mike Jones :

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The SST Discontinuity in the 1940s – But no answer

The SST Discontinuity in the 1940s – But no answer

Post 25 February 2017 ; Comments welcome

Few years ago David W.J. Thompson at al. attempt to explain A large discontinuity in the mid-twentieth century in observed global-mean surface temperature“, published in NATURE, [Vol.453, 29May2008]. Whereas they confirmed  that the Earth warmed from 1910 to1940 the subsequent cooling is explained very superficially, namely by a “variety of physical factors, such as atmosphere–ocean interactions and anthropogenic emissions of sulphate aerosols” and of “uncorrected instrumental biases in the sea surface temperature record”. That the large discontinuity has a strong correlation with World War II is not even mentioned. Fig. 1 & Fig. 5 (Source: HERE)

Immediately Bob Tisdale (2009) question the conclusion, due to obvious  similarities in the shifts of the SST , the cloud cover and the marine air temperature datasets (HERE),but either ignoring human activities at sea in the 1940s as well. One dozen years earlier two papers discussed “Temperature taken during World War II” [Pacific; Atlantic], by showing that a huge variety of observation need to be analyzed before considering any ‘corrections’.  But as Tisdale wonders that Thomson et al pay not any attention to other datasets showing the discontinuity as well, he either is short in asking the question: What is the cause of the observed discontinuity in the 1940s.

The convincing answer is presumably not very far away. Since September 1939 huge water masses were churned up-side-down, as a recent post mentioned. As many ten-thousand ships plugged the sea every day, and billion objects exploded and sunk to the bottom of the sea, over several dozen meters or few thousand kilometers. Aerial bombs, torpedoes and depth charges proved particularly effective. The photos are self-explanatory.  One can only wonder that interest in any human impact on climate by activities at sea hardly exists.

NATURE, [Vol.453, 29May2008] =  PDF

Bob Tisdale (2009)

Temperature taken during World War II” [Pacific]

Temperature taken during World War II” [Atlantic]



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Global Cooling 1940 – 1975 explained for climate change experts

Global Cooling 1940 – 1975 explained for climate change experts

Post 18 Februray 2017; Continued from: dr-judith-curry-on-climate-sciences-fatal-flaw/ &   warm-up-1918-1939-explained-for-dr-judith-curry-and-other/

In the previous post we lauded Dr. Judith Curry for her recent statement: “If science can’t explain climate shifts pre 1950, how can we trust today’s climate models?” One of these two shifts was the warming from 1918-1939, we covered: HERE; while the very significant global cooling period from winter 1939/40 to mid-1970s is our topic today, as it is either a widely unexplored field. In our view: the models fail because this cooling was man-made due to naval war during World War Second (WWII), at least according the work of  Dr. Arnd Bernaerts (Book 2004

Fig. 2 - Northern Europe T°C
Fig. 2 – Northern Europe T°C

and Book 2012). With reference to them, we will try to explain a prima facie connection between these events, and how easy man can interfere with nature and initiate a pronounced climatic change.

Actually, not the impact of two brief naval wars on climate should be a top scientific agenda, but propeller driven motor ships. Many hundred-thousand ships transverse the oceans, up to 500 miles and more every day. During the last 170 years any ship at sea mixes the surface layer down to 20 meters and more, usually forcing more heat into the sea body than forcing colder water toward the surface. Much of the warming of global air temperature since about 1850 might have been caused in this way. Any proof in this respect is currently unavailable, as science is not aware of this point, even worse, incapable to recognize the oceans as principle driver of climate.

This scientific gap could be sufficiently eliminated by analyzing two short time periods of naval warfare during the two World Wars, while recognizing the different mechanisms that caused  warming from 1918 to winter 1993/40 (HERE), and the global cooling thereon until about 1975. While the former period could be localized to an area from Great Britain to the Atlantic section in the Arctic Ocean, the caus

Fig. 3 – Three extreme war winters in Europe 1939/40, 1940/41 and 1941/42

es of the latter period cover the entire North Atlantic (1939-1945) and the Pacific west of Hawaii (1941-1945), both with a very complex temperature, salinity and current structure, great depths, and temperatures of merely about 4°C. In this delicate marine environment, many ten-thousand war ships plugged the sea, and may billion objects exploded and sank to the bottom of the sea, over several dozen meters or thousand kilometers. Impossible that the sea structure  (temperature and salinity) was not severely affected, and the ‘natural sea current profile’ not so heavily altered and diverted that it took at least one generation to erase the war impact, which lasted until about the 1970s. The attached temperature maps hardly allow another conclusion. As science has done nothing for proving anything in this respect, the impact of naval warfare on weather can be proven during the three extreme war winters in Europe 1939/40, 1940/41 and 1941/42, which came unexpected, and were in wide regions the coldest periods for more than 100 years.

With some interest and effort the three war winter can be sufficiently connected to human activities in the North Sea and Baltic since September 1939, due to the fact that these seas are fairly shallow (90m/55m), storing heat during the summer and releasing it in winter. It works like spoon stirring hot coffee, attracting cold air from Siberia (More HERE). In this respect they serve as confined research regions, like a unique field laboratory experiment. Each of the three winters produced its own finger-print, of which the most prominent are mentioned.

Winter 1939/40: From 1st September 1039 on the Southern North and Baltic Sea were covered by unprecedented activities from navigation, shelling, bombing, sea mines and so on. Very soon temperature fell from Brussels to Kaliningrad to levels not seen for several generations, and sea ice cover for many dozen years. In Berlin January and February temperature were second to the coldest ever recorded after 1709.

20-5_ 20-6 20-7
Fig. 4; Mid-January 1940
Fig. 5; Jan/Feb 1940
Fig. 6; Mid_February 1940

Winter  1940/4: During 1940 military activities concentrated from Narvik to Brest, and since April while occupying Norway,  particularly affecting the Skagerrak aera. Subsequently the winter ‘cold pole’ covered Southern Norway, Western Sweden and Northern Denmark.

Winter 1941/42 is a particular illustrative case. The ambush on Russia since June 1941, included  intensive naval warfare in the Eastern Baltic over seven months until sea ice prevented further activities. The Baltic region was thrown back to Little Ice Age condition, for example into the coldest winter in Stockholm since 1756, and unbelievable condition in Tallinn – see Fig. 9.

20-13 20-15
Fig. 7; Winter Denmark
Fig. 8; Winter Stockholm
Fig. 9; Winter Tallinn

In Summary all three winters are so closely connected to naval war activities (outlined in detail over 160 pages – HERE  that ongoing 20-20ignorance is irresponsible. Any proof, whether by a minor or high percentage, would ultimately require an indepth research on naval warfare on the global cooling 1940-1970s, and subsequently of merchant shipping and other ocean uses on global warming since 1850, which would quickly stand correctly for ‘AGW’ (anthropogenic global warming).

   NOTE: The next post explicate a few further aspects on “Warming and Cooling since 1850″.

Book 2004:

Book 2012:

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Warm-Up 1918-1939 explained for Dr. Judith Curry and other

Warm-Up 1918-1939 explained for Dr. Judith Curry and other21_3

  Posted : February 12, 2017 /Comments welcome /  Source and Credit:  “Arctic Warming 1919-1939”

In a previous post we praised Dr. Judith Curry for her recent statement that “……the models fail to simulate the observed warming between 1910 and 1940.” (Fig.1) Here is our explanation: the models fail because this warming is man-made due to naval war during World War One (WWI – 1914 to 1918), Fig. 2 & 3. Therefor we amplify it briefly for Curry and other, which hopefully raise awareness on how easy man can interfere into nature and initiate a climate change.

–1– Since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) around 1850, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) became modestly warmer until the mid-1910s. Then suddenly, temperature dropped significantly in the Northern North Atlantic (Fram Strait, Spitsbergen) since 1914 (Fig. 6, 7, 8), but exploded after 1917 until 1920, and continued to rise across the Northern Hemisphere, in North America up to 1933, until World War II commenced in September 1939.  This dramatic climate shift has evidently – prima facie – a lot to do with four years war at sea that mainly took place around Great Britain (GB), and sea areas influenced by the Atlantic Gulf Current off GB.

 21-4Fig.2 /  BIG  21-5Fig.3 / BIG  21-6Fig.4 / BIG

–2– All water around Great Britain ends up in Arctic Ocean (Fig. 2 & 3), most passing Spitsbergen/Svalbard in the West,

Figure 5b
Figure 5b

and a smaller part via the Barents Sea.

Figure 5a
Figure 5a

–3— The northern branch of the Gulf Current, which has a thickness of up to few hundred meters transvers northwards as Norwegian- and West-Spitsbergen Current. The water is warm and has a high salinity. In contrast the Norwegian Sea Basin (mean depth 1740m) is colder and higher saline, as a varying sea surface level of several dozen meters, which is colder and due to rain and runoff significantly less saline. That forms a very complex environment, which was severely thrown out of its common structure. The atmosphere reacted instantly, Fig. 6, 7 &  8.

–4— Actually naval war reached a very destructive dimensions only in autumn 1916, by new weaponry, mass production, and trained personnel. Over many months German U-Boats sunk 10 and more vessels every day. Nature reacted immediately, for example:

aa) Winter 1916/17 became the third coldest in Great Britain in the 20th Century;

bb) Air temperature at Spitsbergen dropped to a low level since a dozen years (Fig. 6). Remarkable is the big difference between summer and winter (Fig. 8), indicating that substantial changes within the upper sea levels took place, and any influence of  sun-ray variation is neclectable

cc) The sea ice extend in the North Atlantic was the most sever in summer 1917, at least since about 1900 (more details HERE).

dd) A significant rise in summer air temperature at Spitsbergen was already observed in 1918 (Details book Ch. 5/E, p.60)

ee) At Spitsbergen the annual temperature increased within four years by about 7°C between 1917 and 1920, Fig. 7 (and between 1st-Quarter (D/J/F) 1917 and 1922 about 14°C ; see Fig. 6), continue to rise thereon and affecting subsequently the NH. (Fig. 1)

ff) That the warming of North America ceased around 1933, is a strong indication for a very sudden temporary push in the Atlantic section of the Arctic Ocean (see Fig. 1 & 4)

More details and a full picture is see book Chapter 8 “Caused Naval War the Arctic Warming?” HERE.

21-7Fig.6 / BIG 21-8Fig.7 / BIG 21-9Fig.8 / BIG

NEXT post by 18th Feb. is about man-made global cooling from autumn 1939 to about 1975.

4Figure 9  – from Post May 25, 2015 : OCEANS GOVERN CLIMATE



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Dr. Judith Curry on climate science’s fatal flaw

25aDr. Judith Curry speaks out on climate science’s fatal flaw –
the failure to explore and understand uncertainty

Post: February 10, 2017 ; Comments welcome

 Dr. Judith Curry speaks out on climate science’s fatal flaw but does she understand the climate change matter at least a little bit better? Unfortunately not, or have you heard her ever talking on the overwhelming predominate influence of the seas?

It was in a recent interview on British radio, February 6th [More at WUWT]  that she mentioned climate science’s fatal flaw – the failure to explore and understand uncertainty, as a yet unaddressed issues of how ‘natural climate change’ drivers impact the earth’s climate, which indicates: Not understood’.

Judith Curry is to praise when mentioning:
___”If science can’t explain climate shifts pre 1950, how can we trust today’s climate models?”, and that
___“……the models fail to simulate the observed warming between 1910 and 1940.”

Actually, both time periods are closely correlated with the two great naval war activities about 10 and 7 decades ago. World War I presumably initiated the extreme warming from about winter 1918/19 to winter 1939/40, which saw the commencement of a three decades long global cooling. That is anthropogenic making pure and presumably one reason because computer models fail. But surely not alone!

More important is the most basic lack of understanding. Earth weather (and subsequently ‘climate’) is based on the law of physics58_2. In this system the ration between ocean and atmosphere is 1000:3, in regard to average temperature about +4°C to 14°C. The vast dominance of the oceans concerning physical parameters is very obvious. If it is too big to understand, to assess, and to feed into computer models, should not allow speaking instead about ‘natural climate change’. A thorough investigation of the impact of the World Wars on the most pronounced climatic shifts since the end of the Little Ice Age about 170 years ago will demonstrate how easy major human activities – at sea – even over a short period of time may influence weather (and climate).

At the end of the interview Dr. Curry encourage people “who have concerns about the validity of arguments alleging man made climate change to continue to speak out about their concerns”, which we pick up by adding to the reasoning above: Any reference to “natural climate change’ undermines serious climate research.

More at WUWT:

Not understood:

21_7 21_9
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Winter 1947 brought a freeze – Which else?

The 1940s produced four extreme winters
Met-Office recognize only 1947

Post January 29, 2017 _ Comments OPEN

In a recent post the Met-Office asked its reader: “If you’re old enough to remember 1947, then you’ll almost certainly have the winter as one of your most vivid memories of the year. For meteorologists and climatologists, the winter of 1947 was a standout year for the UK…. “, accentuated also about two years ago in: “Severe Winters”.  Why not asking for other winters?


Actually the 1940s produced four extreme winters, during the first three war winters 1939/40 t0 1941/42 and 1946/47. Compare the corresponding temperature anomalies in the first winter 1939/40 with those in winter 1946/47 and the comparability is easily assessable.


Surprisingly the Met-Office shows little interest to investigate what generated the extraordinary winter. They came suddenly and totally unexpected. All winter in the decade before WWII had been the warmest since the end of the Little Ice Age. The sudden arrival of three extreme winters can be convincingly explained by naval war activities. More HERE-1.


Even the winter 1946/47 which was particularly pronounced in Western-Europe, in countries close to the North Sea and Atlantic, a connection the WWII is a strong option, as discussed HERE-2.

It is time that Met.-Office awakes, and does what it should have done since long, telling us, what triggered the severe winters in Europe in the 1940s.

Met-Office-2017: Winter 1947 brought a freeze to post-war Britain

Met-Office-2015:  Severe Winters

HERE-1: C. Winter 1939/40

HERE-2: Extreme winter of 1946/47 in Europe


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Ignorant Windfarm Industry

Ignorant Windfarm Industry – Now Off Rhode Island25_1

Posted January 24, 2017

“Now testing the waters: Wind power”, titles the NYT an article concerning the first US off shore wind farm about three miles off Rhode Island. The operating started in last December. Reading the article and the company’s environmental assessment, one can only wonder about the ignorance concerning the impact seem to be in place.

The four-legs steel installations cover a depth of about 80 feet (~25 meters). The water column is permanently in move, horizontal and vertical. The water column has a high verity of temperature and salinity. Each installed object cause a mixing a25_2nd change of current direction; 24 hours a day. Warmer or colder water may reach the sea surface, that inevitable alter the air temperature.

Five off shore installations is not a big matter. Shocking should be the incompetence in ocean matters. There will be soon many more wind turbines installed.  There are approximately 2,500 wind turbines spinning in the ocean off the coast of Europe today. That is likely to have already a pronounced effect on the winters in Europe, particularly as far as the North Sea and Baltic Sea are concerned. More HERE and HERE. Whether the “Europeans warm their winters” could be fairly easily proven if science, public servants and companies would acknowledge that oceans-govern-climate, and care accordingly.

Furter Reading  in PDF:  Offshore Wind-Parks and Northern Europe’s Mild Winters: Contribution from Ships, Fishery, et cetera? in Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering 6 (2016) 46-56

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James Hansen’s Blindness

James Hansen’s Blindness on Big Climatic Events

posted January 23, 2017 – Comments welcome

Massive Data Tampering Uncovered At NASA? The subject was recently discussed at NTZ (and illustrated with multiple g25araphs). With regard to two events they indicate simultaneously the same:  A steep rise in temperature after World War One (WWI), and a large temperature drop when World War Two commenced in late 1939; as shown in the graphic from 1981.

In 1981, James Hansen was the Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.  He was also the lead author of a seminal paper published in the prestigious journal Science entitled “Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide“.  In the paper, Hansen and his colleagues reported a rapid warming in the Northern Hemisphere of between +0.8 and +1.0°C between the 1880s and 1940, which then cooled by ~0.5°C between 1940 and 1970.

Already the length of the first Period 1880 to 1940 Hansen and colleagues interpreted wrong, which should have been divided in two parts:
Phase A) 1880 to WWI indicate a modest cooling by 0.1°C; and
Phase B) From the end of WWI to 1939 showing a steep temperature rise of about 0,9°C.
In addition they should have shown interest in the fact that the temperature turnaround commenced together with World War II around late 1939.

How could NASA scientists miss the clears signs of a strong correlation between the two World Wars and major climatic shifts during the first half of the 20th Century in 1981 (Further Reading ).  How could they remain beaten with blindness until today?

Discussed at NTZ

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Claiming “natural variability” indicates: Not understood!

 Claiming “natural variability” indicates: Not understood!

posted January 15, 2017; Comment open

Talking about “natural variability” is a sign that the research issue is not understood. But climate science loves the term. So do Chantal a_28Camenisch and her 32 colleagues in their recent paper (A) concerning a climate reconstruction from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives, which indicates that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century.

Interesting is their conclusion that neither volcanic eruptions nor a reduction in solar forcing on temperature seasonality can explain these winters in the 1430s, although attached images  indicate that air temperatures and precipitation may have been strongly influenced by the Eastern Atlantic from Spain to Ireland and the North and Baltic Sea.  

Instead of admitting that they are unable to identify the cause, they say: “The climate models showed instead that these conditions were due to natural variations in the climate system, a combination of natural factors that occurred by chance and meant Europe had very cold winters and normal to warm summers”.

Instead of adb_28mitting that they have not yet grasped that oceans-govern-climate, they claim “natural variability” ignoring that weather (and climate) work according physical laws. Worst, by not even saying what that term means. Do they think that “Natural climate variability, as the name suggests, is caused by natural factors.”? (see:  What nonsense!  Applying the law of physics in the weather-world might be often difficult due to complexity and lack of data, but using instead ‘natural variability” is unacceptable and strongly misleading.  


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Dinosaurs wiped out by … Darkness and Cold

Dinosaurs wiped out by … Darkness and Cold

Posted 14 Jan. 2017; h/T JoaNova_a

“To investigate the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs about sixty six million years ago, the scientists for the first time used a specific kind of computer simulation normally applied in different contexts, a climate model coupling atmosphere, ocean and sea ice”; says PIK. However little information is provided about data and possible role of the ocean,

Instead the only physical reference is according Julia Brugger from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), and lead author of the study: “The big chill following the impact of the asteroid that formed the Chicxulub crater in Mexico is a turning point in Earth history.” [Publ. 13.Jan.2017] That is certainly too petty-minded view, when the global annual mean surface air temperature dropped by at least 26 degrees Celsius.

It is the common problem with PIK. They build on research showing that sulfur-bearing gases that evaporated from the violent asteroid impact on our planet’s surface were the main factor for blocking the sunlight and cooling down Earth. No word about the role of the oceans with an average temperatures as low as about 4°C. Ocean dimension matter, as well is their service to the atmosphere with regard to temperature, evaporation, humidity, wind and ice-cover. This is another annoying example by many scientists to disguise their fuddy-duddy research on “computer simulation”.

Reference: Julia Brugger, Georg Feulner, Stefan Petri. (2017) Baby, it’s cold outside: Climate model simulations of the effects of the asteroid impact at the end of the CretaceousGeophysical Research Letters, 2016; DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072241

Ocean dimsenison matter:

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Too many miss the big picture –also Alan Carlin

30_aToo many miss the big picture – also Alan Carlin

Post 1st January 2017

Should AGW sceptics understand what they are talking about? Of course! Let’s have a look at the critical view of Alan Carlin expressed in a recent post (Dec.30,2016): “Why Climate Alarmists Have Missed the Big Picture”. He claims that “There is evidence that very minor changes in the incidence of sunlight on Earth can and have resulted in plunging Earth and all its living cargo into new ice ages”.  It is not the sun but the oceans, and Alan Carlin, as a sceptic for many years, should know it.

Back in 2009 Alan Carlin, an economist and senior analyst at the EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), became a sudden celebrity with the surfacing of a few e-mail messages that seemed to show that his contrarian views on global warming had been suppressed by his superiors (NYT). It seems he did not use his new influence well, but ignored further on the relevance of the oceans in climate matters, as outlined HERE, HERE & HERE.   

However, Alan Carlin rightly warns about the major climatic risk, namely “that Earth will plunge into a new ice age, with global temperatures ultimately reaching perhaps 6 to 8°C below current temperatures.” Presumably lower annual temperature of just 1-2°C, are enough for a serious threat, and the oceans are so cold that it can happen within a few months or years.


Alan Carlin (Dec.30, 2016)

DITTO: Tallbloke, 2017/01/01

NYT, 2009/September /25; “Behind the Furor Over a Climate Change Skeptic”


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Cold Ocean – The best kept secret in the ‘climate world?

Cold Ocean – The best kept secret in the ‘climate world?32

 Posted December 28. 2016

“The best kept secret in the ‘climate world’ probably is: the cooling capacity of the deep sea. Some attention is paid to the heat uptake by the oceans, but there is no attention for the cooling capacity of the deep sea. That capacity is huge and might be (and might have been) of decisive importance in climate and climate change”;  says Wim Röst in a guest past at WUWT (26.Dec.2016).

The ass31_dec28essment is important, and the essay is recommended to be read due to the fine presentation of the oceanic dimension and temperature structure. But if Röst assume “Warming by [less] Upwelling of Cold Ocean Water”, he is speculating, as no data in this respect have been collected. Even if several ten-thousand devices would be put in place, it would require several dozen decades, before it might be possible to analyze a globally relevant correlation.

As outlined in a previous post (HERE)  the only prolonged cooling period since 1850 occurred simultaneously together  with the sinking of many ten-thousands of ships and  air-planes, and billions of ammunition, as  shells, torpedoes and depth-charges, arial bombs. Not only the surface layer is affected, but the entire water column, sometimes down to 10’000 meters, with the inevitable impact that cold water is pushed to the sea surface layer. The net result is cooling.

Further Reading: Global Cooling and Fake

WUWT (26. December 2016) Wim Röst  “Warming by [less] Upwelling of Cold Ocean Water”

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Global Cooling and Fake

Global Cooling and Fake32a

posted Dece mber 26, 2016

After decades of warming, suddenly winter 1939/40 became the coldest in Europe in more than 100 years, which was the beginning of a global cooling for more than three decades. The reason has never been seriously investigated, although World War Two represents an unprecedented field experiment. Instead of assessing the impact of naval warfare on weather and climate, the discussion is merely about the interpretation of temperature statistics, as indicated in the two images. Are they misinterpreted?

The full title of a recent post at WUWT (Dec.15, 2016) is:  “Global Cooling and Wikipedia Fake News”, referring to:32b

___an excellent new post up at (Sept.13, 2016) on the global cooling scare of the 1970’s and the efforts to erase it from the record by the climate alarmists at For some the scandal at Wikipedia over William Connolley deliberately posting false articles and altering factual ones on climate is old news. This is for those who missed the story. William Connolley created or rewrote 5,428 unique Wikipedia articles. “Fake news” is an old story, used extensively by radical climate alarmists and environmentalists. Indeed, Greenpeace seems to be based on the concept of fake news.”  More at NTZ.    As NTZ mention:

___”, it is plainly evident that there was a great deal of concern about the ongoing global cooling, which had amounted to -0.5°C in the Northern Hemisphere and -0.3°C globally between the 1940s and 1970s.”,

one need only to ask what did naval warfare contribute since September 1939, to the extreme winters in Europe and global Temperature decline, noting that naval war took place primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, which resulted in lower mean temperatures than globally over several decades.


WUWT, 26.Dec.16; (Sept.13, 2016):

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Incompetence in ocean matters continues.

Incompetence in ocean matters continues.dec23-16
Adolf Hitler in WWII – Climatology ever since!

The New York Time brought the news on the front page of the December 9th 1941 issue: “US declares war”  and that the “Nazis give up idea of Moscow in 1941. Winter forces abandoning big drives in the north (N- Europe) until spring, Berlin says”. Since November temperature and snow conditions became worse than the wildest imagination. What is not known is that Hitler could only blame himself and his weather-advisors for this enormous miscalculation. They had expected a mild winter. (More) They had not learned anything from the previous two cold winters 1939/40 and 1940/41, and the role that naval war had played.

dec2_16-bAnd again, Hitler’s great field experiment in climate-change by naval war in the seas around Europe showed quick and thorough results. Europe was unexpectedly back in the Little Ice Age.  A number of locations got the coldest winter ever recorded. The ‘great commander’ had shot himself in the back. The weather conditions Hitler’s warfare forced to arrive marked the beginning of the end of the Third Reich.

And what did climatology learn from this “experiment”? Nothing! They never even showed any interest in the three war winters 1939/40-1941/42 (More: essay in PDF, 13 pages . . Anyone who claims to understand climate change must also be able to explain these events. Anyone who can explain these events will recognize that the oceans play the key role in any and all questions of the climate.


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Arctic Report Card 2016 – An Insufficient Work

i_9Arctic Report Card 2016 –  An Insufficient Work

Posted December 19, 2016

“It’s crazy.” Since 2006, the Arctic Report Card is issued annually, and the four dozen authors, miss the most fundamental aspect in their annual review ever since; facts and discussion of changes in the sea water structure concerning temperatures and salinity. There are hundreds of military, commercial , research and leisure ships navigating the open and ice covered Arctic Ocean, but  science is not even able to mention the threat by human activities. That is crazy.

ccWhile it is a fact that a persistent warming trend and loss of sea ice trigger Arctic changes, it is necessary to acknowledge that the prime source is the sea water column, which is extreme sensitive to human activities (see image), particularly in those sea areas which are ice covered. But the repot does neither acknowledge this aspect, nor does it offer any information. Instead the “surface air temperature” is in focus and one of the leading scientists Mark Serreze, is quoted: “Personally, I would have to say that this last year has been the most extreme year for the Arctic that I have ever seen. It’s crazy.”  Indeed, the report is waste of time and money without details on changes in the water column, and telling the public about any possible impact scientific research and other activities in the Arctic may have on air temperature and sea ice cover.


Web-Site to the report:

The Report in PDF:

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Naval War drives PDO into Cooling – 75 Years Ago

Naval War drives PDO into Cooling – 75 Years Ago a-36

 Posted December 16, 2016

Soon Shinzo Abe is to make a historic visit to Pearl Harbour, the first by a Japanese leader.  By a devastating sneak attack on Pearl Harbour on Dec. 7, 1941, a prolonged naval war across the Western Pacific commenced.  This naval war pushed the Pacific in a cooling mood, contributing to the global cooling period from 1940 to the mid-1970s. The dramatic shift in the early 1940s in the “Pacific Decadal Oscillation” (PDO) is known for decades, but nothing about its causation. Science is unaware of the profound correlation between naval warfare and its impact on climate, and that after 75 years have passed. A profound analysis is HERE.

b-36This major topic in a world that fears anthropogenic climate change will not be raised during the meeting of Abe with Obama in Pearl Harbor on Dec. 26 and 27. Decades have passed and no lesson learned from the impact of many thousand warship and several ten-thousand air planes involved in dozen of naval activities; bombing, torpedoing, shelling, and ploughing the sea. Any activity penetrated and revolved the sea down to dozen, in many cases down to several hundred meters. Many million objects, vessels, air planes, shells, torpedoes, and so on, sunk to the sea bottom, sometimes over many thousand meters.

It was a grand human filed experiment on climate change. It worked perfectly, while world leader pretend doing everything to minimise human caused climate change, are still unable to see the only benefit the naval war has offered: to understand Oceans Govern Climate. What a failure!

More about the winter i1941/42 in Europe 75 years ago: HERE

Comments: Open

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Why do models disagree on temperature variability?

Why do models disagree on temperature variability?32

Climate models have problems. The problems are as old as science attempts to understand climate change by model simulation. That will last until a thorough ocean observation system is in place, and overriding impact of the oceans on climate is accepted, understood and applied in climate sciences..

But the narrow vies continues to prevail, as recently expressed by Dr. Patrick Brown (2016/12/05), when saying:

Since it is known that unforced GMST  (‘global mean surface temperature’ ) variability is heavily influenced by tropical Pacific surface temperatures, it might be tempting to suppose that the large inter-model spread in the simulated magnitude of GMST variability is due to model disagreement in the amount of simulated tropical Pacific variability. Perhaps surprisingly, our study shows that this is not the case and that the spread in the magnitude of model-simulated GMST variability is linked much more strongly to model disagreements over high-latitude oceans. Our findings suggesting that improving the simulation of air-sea interaction in these high-latitude ocean regions could narrow the range of simulated GMST variability, advance our fundamental understanding of natural variability, and appreciably improve our ability to forecast global warming on policy-relevant timescales.

With this understanding science is unlikely to make any progress, as the analysis ignores completely the changing of internal oceanic forces, 1_with a physical capacity 1’000  times higher as of the atmosphere. However it is to acknowledge that Dr. Brown realizes that further progress is not possible without more attention to the sea.

REFERENCE: Why do climate models disagree on the size of global temperature variability?  Posted on December 5, 2016 by ptbrown31

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Afraid of Scott Pruitt? – Blame yourself!

Afraid of Scott Pruitt? – Blame yourself!

Posted: December 11, 2016

Emerge now the unique chance to review the whole climate change matter, since Donald Trump selected the sceptic Scott Pruitt to serve as the ahead of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  The pick of the Oklahoma Attorney General has been described as “putting an arsonist in charge of fighting fires”, with some warning “the whole country is in danger”, even an “existential threat to the planet”.

The concern has merits, but is that Pruitt’s fault? Could Pruitt be not right when casting doubt on whether human activity is causing the planet to warm – in opposite to 97% of the scientific community? For sure if he addresses only the arrogance of the 97% who believe in the warming by carbon dioxide, but wrong if Pruitt would generally deny a serious correlation between human activities and global warming since industrialization during the last 170 years; as the oceans matter.

Since the end of the Little Ice Age about 1850, huge shipping fleets plough through the sea, pushing more heat in the sea, as the sea can release again soon. The net result is warming the seas. Due to human activities at sea the oceans warm, and the atmosphere as well. But as 97% of the scientific community is ignorant in this respect, main stream science lack the arguments to challenge President-elect Donald Trump and soon-to-be EPA chief Scott Pruitt on anthropogenic climate change matters. They should blame themselves if the protection of climate is not addressed appropriate.

Comments OPEN

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Holy Molly – A young Lady and Al Gore

Holy Molly – A young Lady and Al Gore

Posted December 07, 2016 // COMMENTS open

The future first daughter is reportedly planning to make climate change one of her signature issues. On Monday the 5th of December Ivanka Trump met with former Vice President Al Gore to discuss “climate issues”. After the meeting, Gore disclosed he had also met with the president-elect, describing the conversation as “very productive” and a “sincere search for areas of common ground.”

yHoly Molly what is Rep Senator Jim Inhofe going to say, who calls Climate change talking the “Greatest Hoax”, confirming this assessment  in a statement  only one month ago: “Americans do not support …economically damaging mandates that have no measurable impact to climate change.” (More HERE) That hardly fits together. On one side a man who once said that “the world had until 27th January 2016 to end its addiction to fossil fuels or it would come to an end; and on the other hand someone who promises to “make America great again”.  How those shall work, and worst if based on a far too narrow knowledge base – as outlined in the pervious post.

But hope moves mountains, as an Opinion by Thomas L Friedman in the NYT (Int. Edition 12/08/16)*  indicates: “I don’t expect Trump to abandon his effort to increase oil drilling or to ban coal”; while concluding his text with the hope: “As long as Trump is open to learning on the environment, we have to pushz our best and brightest through the doors of Trump Tower to constructively engage him”.

That leaves here only room for two questions.
(A) Belongs Al Gore to the brightest in America?
(B) Have there been serious indication over the last 12 months, that the President-elect is able and willing to learn?
Even it is eventually a little bit the case, are Jim Inhofe and his colleagues not immediately crying fool?
Contrary to all expectation, can ‘a Beauty and a Beast’ make a difference?

  *) NYT, Thursday, December 8, 2016, p1 &13: “Say what, AL, Donald and Ivanka” Opinion by Thomas L. Friedman.


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James Inhofe (R-Okl.): Global Warming is Greatest Hoax.

James Inhofe (R-Okl.): Global Warming is Greatest Hoax._book-image-_

Posted 07 December 2016: Comments: open

On Wednesday November 9, 2016, U.S. Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.), chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works (EPW), released a statement on future of the United States’ commitment to the Paris Agreement (A).

 If someone regards global warming as the conspiracy and has written a book about the subject (B) in which he claimed that “our rigorous oversight of the IPCC began with my “Greatest Hoax” speech in 2003”, the announcements made four weeks ago, “that a future administration will have numerous options to forego political commitments under the Paris Agreement” will change the general scenario considerably.

Presumably Jim Inhofe talk is as much vacuous as that of his opponents is. Both ignore the fundamental climate driver, the oceans. Both are incapable to define the term CLIMATE in a meaningful manner (more here). To deny ‘global warming’ over the last 150 years since the end of the Little Ice Age is as ignorant, as the claim by his opponents on AGW by carbon dioxide.

The Republicans are soon in a comfortable position to challenge IPCC and the Paris Accord. It would be time for J. Inhofe to look more serious into the matter, ensure that wrong facts, or a gut instinct, are used to formulate politics to minimize anthropogenic interference in weather matters, which is a highly possible issue, if one no longer ignores, human ocean uses since the mid-19th Century.     

(A) Inhofe Statement On The Future Of U.S. Commitments To The Paris Agreement.

(B) US Senator James Inhofe (R-Okla.); The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future 1st Edition -2012;

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The 1430s: A Cold Period – Why?

The 1430s: A Cold Period – Why?

Posted December 03, 2016; NOTE: Comments Section Activated

A recent paper (A)  by 32 scientists assume, “that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century, img_0296and that this decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers”. No surprise that WUWT titled the story: “Cold Kills: The coldest decade of the millennium”, but merely asking: “cold kills, so why all the whining about warming?”(B), while remaining silent about the papers notion, that “…these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system”. This is shocking. What is “internal variability”?

Leading scientists seem incapable to understand that climate (and weather) is physics, plain physics, and that the oceans, next to the sun, are the driver of the system. The oceans are so big and so cold that they can provide a cooling within a few months, sustain it over years and generate a new ice age. Referring to internal variability is a confession of failure. Chantal Camenisch and her colleagues lack the necessary competence, if they are not even able to ask what influence the oceans might have had. Why are they not being challenged to explain that the oceans have, or not have contributed? Not mentioning the oceans at all is a serious scientific default.

(A)  The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe.

(B)  WUWT:

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Oceans Govern Climate

Oceans Govern Climate   

Ocean average temperature is only about 4 ° Celsius
Ocean average temperature is only about 4 ° Celsius

The name “oceansgovernclimate” is program. Measures to protect climate without profound information and understanding of the oceans are costly, insufficient, and delay action to prevent anthropogenic “ocean change” that probably cause climate change. Since long we support the fascinating theory on the impact of naval war on climate, as outlined in the “Booklet on Naval War changes Climate”. The two World Wars demonstrate conclusively how easy human activities induce alteration in the sea-structure that leads to climatic changes.  ‘Human activities’ cover everything, from shipping, fishing, leisure boats, and off-shore platforms. In so far the two major naval wars served as ‘large field experiments’, as summarized in the conclusion of the Booklet “Can WWII go by unnoticed?”, from which the following excerpts (p. 94f, PDF) are taken:

QUOTE. “The aim of the book was to leave no doubt that the ocean determined where the climate was heading to. In this scenario, CO2 played only a minor role. CO2 was definitely neither the source of the “Big Warming Bang” (in 1918, far in the North of the North Atlantic), nor of the global cooling (from 1939 until the 1980’s).

1Oceans and seas are very complex, which are not well-understood not even today. But war at sea during two major world wars was a tremendous force that has left its trace on the oceans. Two climate changes during the last century prove our thesis. Winter temperature had risen in Spitsbergen with 8ºC (1918–1939). The whole Europe got warmer every year. The German Chancellor Adolph Hitler started the war in 1939 and immediately North Europe was dragged back into the Little Ice Age, which implied climatic conditions not experienced for over 100 years. Two arctic war winters followed in the region with extreme naval activities until the war at sea went global, in 1942. And what followed immediately after that? There were four decades of global cooling, affecting particularly the Northern Hemisphere, because here naval war had the most devastating effects and left a definite fingerprint in the downturn of global temperatures. Even though our book section on naval warfare between 1942 and 1945 is short, the connection between naval forces and global cooling is overwhelmingly convincing.

For further reading:
Book 2005: Climate Change & Naval War – A Scientific Assessment


Winter temperatures of more than 5ºC below average are totally out of tune. Weather statistics cried for attention, but nothing happened in this respect over more than six decades. Until now, only one of the most ruthless WWII warmongers, the German Vice-Chancellor Hermann Goering, commented the arctic winter of 1939/40 by saying that a higher power has “sent” the harsh winter conditions. It is time to prove him wrong and to blame him, Hitler and the Nazis for having caused the arctic war winters and the global cooling………………

So far, the statements seem to contradict each other. But in a wider sense, they are pretty logical. Someone who claims to be able to explain current global 4warming must implicitly be able to explain a pronounced global cooling which affected the climate only half a century ago. Ignoring the event for more than six decades is even more bizarre than relating phenomena to a ‘higher power’.

If this investigation succeeds in proving that two major wars changed the course of the climate twice in the last century, it will also prove that shipping, fishing, off-shore drilling, and other ocean uses had constantly contributed to the global warming since the start of industrialization, more than 150 years ago.

A new chapter on the climate change issue could be now opened, giving more attention to oceanic phenomena under the influence of the potential of the “1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”.  All research would lead to a better understanding and protection of the stability of our short-term weather and long-term global climate.” UNQUOTE
Material available at:

First published in May 2015

The site will resume publishing in November 2016

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h/t  P Gosselin on 25. July 2016 (NTZ)43_nasa-fraud

Tony Heller (HERE) calls the idea that it’s getting hotter “utter nonsense”, and being due to “station data loss and fabrication”, indicating that NASA “erased” the once unanimously agreed cooling from 1940 – 1970; (Fig. 1) Heller, who goes by the pseudo-name of Steve Goddard at his wildly popular realclimatecience site, highlights some of the many ridiculous claims climate experts and activist politicians made, and have since turned out to be a complete folly, assuming  “climate data is being manipulated to increase alarm“.  See more

The two big climatic shifts are not sun but ocean allocatable
The two big climatic shifts are not sun but ocean allocatable

at NTZ:

The problem is that NASA seems feeling obliged to erase the global cooling (1940 to mid 1970), while skeptics are satisfied to do a bit or some bigger complaining. Neither side seems able and willing to explain the pronounced three decades long global cooling (Fig.2), which correlates with naval warfare in Europe, across the Atlantic and Western Pacific since September 1939 until August 1945, definitely a man-made cause.  For more see the following links:

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El Niño’s make it for hundreds of years

Bombshell study: past El Niño’s ‘may have amplified
global climate fluctuations for hundreds of years at a time’ *)

The new work from AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY found periods of predominantly El Niño-like patterns for several hundred years 44_that alternate with La Niña patterns, impacting on global climate over the last 2000 years. What does it tell us? Oceans govern climate! The sea surface area of an El Niño event is extreme small compared with the entire global ocean space. How shall such tiny sea area contribute significantly to global warming, asks a recent post?. The ocean interior is what matters. No surprise that the lead author Dr Michael Griffiths from William Paterson University /USA explains: “Until we can model this lower-frequency behavior in the tropical Pacific, one can only speculate on how the warming will play out over the next few decades”. Unfortunate this view is by far too narrow. Reducing such issue on the ‘tropical Pacific’ is appalling naïve.  All ocean space from top to the bottom (3’500 meters), contributes to climate change. This inability to see the entire picture on what governs climate  is the real threat to the world fearing climate change. .

 *) h/t & credit:  WUWT

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Is consensus about climate silly?

According NASA: “97 percent of climate scientists agree: Climate-warming trends over the past century are extremely likely due to human 1_activities.” (1) The Guardian is even blunter: “It’s settled: 90–100% of climate experts agree on human-caused global warming” (2) It looks compelling, but not everyone agrees.  “..[t]he claim of “scientific consensus” on the causes and consequences of climate change is without merit”, object the authors Craig D. Idso et al., in a recent book publication by The Heartland Institute (3) Is one claim better than the other. No, because the problem is not “scientific consent”, but the facts used for consideration.

That applies to both sides, as both are too much fixed on atmospheric matters.  Idso et al., cite Prof Judith Curry (p.37) with the notion:  “None of the most consequential scientific uncertainties are going to be resolved any time soon”. What is not said in the first place, that water is the principle issue concerning climate. Only about 10 percent of the water evaporated from the oceans is 2_transported over land and falls as precipitation. Once evaporated, a water molecule spends about 10 days in the air. That means a replace of about 50 times per year. The volume of water in the atmosphere at any one time is about 12,900 cubic kilometers (km3), which is about 0.001 percent of the total Earth’s water volume (Volume of the Baltic Sea 21,700 km3).

The oceans are not only the supplier of aerial vapor, but the driver of evaporation as well. Only a tiny amount of warm water ‘swims’ on a huge water body with a mean temperature of about 4 °Celsius, and an average depth of nearly  3’700 meters. Science is so far away from understanding enough details about ocean processes, how they respond to human activities at sea, and how they are going to shape our future climate, that the discussion on ‘consensus’ looks silly.

Further reading:
___   Losing to radical environmentalism – Lesson for Skeptics
___  The oceans have stripes


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Losing to radical environmentalism – Lesson for Skeptics

The Environmentalist Game Plan (1)1_

x) Mission: Deindustrialize Civilization
xx) Goal: Drive industrial corporations into Bankruptcy
xxx) Strategy: Cut off the Supply of Cheap, Reliable Energy

–Raise the price of fossil fuels
–Force the power grid to use expensive, unreliable renewables
–emonize Nuclear energy
–Spread fear of extraction technologies such as fracking
–Increase regulatory costs on energy production
–Scare investors away from carbon energy companies
–Stop pipelines because they are too safe and efficient
–Force all companies to account for carbon usage and risk

Radical environmentalism is playing the endgame while others are sleeping, or discussing the holes in the science. It is the belief in Climate Change and the activists executing their game plan.  Make no mistake: they are well-funded, well-organized and mean business.

Prosecuting climate chaos skeptics with RICO* (2)

Former executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Christiana Figueres put it in the bluntest terms: “We are setting ourselves the task of intentionally to change [sic] the economic development model that has been reigning for at least 150 years” – the free enterprise capitalist system. “The next world climate summit is actually an economic summit, during which the distribution of the world’s resources will be negotiated,” her UN climate crisis cohort Otmar Edendorfer added. “We will redistribute de facto the world’s wealth by climate policy.”                                                 *) Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act

Lesson for Skeptics to learn

Question and chase IPCC and radical environmentalism on the role of the oceans
in climate matters, and the impact of man on the oceans since industrialization.
The cold oceans decide on climate.  ;

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Skeptics should wake-up soon…

Incredible! But should skeptics blame not first themself when  “Al Gore and State Attorney Generals start another climate witch hunt? “*)

                           Read the recent post (13 March 2016) – upper lines added 29 March
A need to identify „Climate Criminals“? For Skeptics: YES! 
Skeptics should wake-up soon on identifying explicit ‘climate criminals’, starting with the First Climate Criminal – Adolf Hitler (HERE1). If not IIIthey are likely to be in focus themselves soon. Only few days ago U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch acknowledged
that there have been discussions within the Department of Justice about possibly pursuing civil action against so-called climate change deniers….. and have referred it to the FBI to consider whether or not it meets the criteria for which we could take action on”.
(see CNSNews/09 March 2016).
Climate skeptics should be alerted- The prospect is awful and dangerous.
The need to identify Hitler as the first climate criminal is simple says 1ocean-1climate. “Had Adolf Hitler been identified as the “First Climate Criminal “ many decades ago James Hansen would not have had a chance to testify to US Congress on 23 June 1988 that CO2-global-warming was underway, respectively he would been required to explain primarily how” (HERE2),
“After many decades of global warming the first eight weeks in 1940 turned the wheel back to the Little Ice Age. Suddenly the winter in Europe was the coldest since the early 19th Century (HERE3)”.   HERE1
Without clear evidence, that neither the extreme war winters (1940-1942) nor the global cooling (1940-1970) were in any way war related, the member of Congress would not have taken James Hansen’s claim serious (HERE2).
Unfortunately no one cared. Hansen succeeded until now. To stop him and other, it is not too late to turn the wheel around, by nominating Adolf Hitler as the first climate criminal and demonstrating, that only few months naval war were needed to ‘change climate’. That is evidence on anthropogenic impact on ‘climate change’ pure.

Credit: Booklet on Naval War changes Climate

*)  Source: WUWT (2016/03/29)

EXTRACT: Unprecedented Coalition Vows To Defend Climate Change Progress Made Under President Obama And To Push The Next President For Even More Aggressive Action; NEW YORK – Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman today joined Attorneys General from across the nation to announce an unprecedented coalition of top law enforcement officials committed to aggressively protecting and building upon the recent progress the United States has made in combatting climate change.





h/t; Discussed also at: ;

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End of Science? – “Consensus” and the AGW controversy!

A guest essay by Rick Wallace (R.W.) at WUWT (2016/03/10) assumes that “in real science any state of agreement is labile at best – and Theophrastus_text_establishing a consensus is about the last thing on peoples’ minds”, which he base on study evolutionary biology. He thereon explains “that under these conditions, as often as not, a leading idea is a target to take aim at rather than a flag to rally ‘round.” From this perspective Rick Wallace concludes: “Obviously, this cast of mind is utterly different from what we find in the AGW arena. Which in itself is compelling evidence that the motivations are different in normal science and in (C)AGW.”

What lacks all this noble consideration is that R.W. focuses on the question of how to define what a species is, but when it comes to (C)AGW-movement a need for reasonable definitions is not raised. According R.W. it seems possible to define ‘species’, “as a reproductively isolated population, … least for organisms that reproduce sexually”. Unfortunately atmospheric science cannot rely on a comparable picture.
The problem in the field of “AGW controversy” is the lack of clear definitions, and the reckless mix-up of different aspects. For example: A temperature rise is not necessarily results in global warming (GW), and global warming (GW) is not necessarily related to anthropogenic global warming (AGW). The existence and cause of climate change has not necessarily something to do any increase or decrease in instrumental temperature records. The entire field lacks of clear definitions, starting with “weather” (HERE). Even though Rick Wallace essay is far too brief in this respect, it is worth reading:

“What is perhaps most fascinating about modern spectacles like the AGW movement (and here I’m thinking in particular of the Moscow show trials of the 1930s) is that the truth is always right there in front of everyone – and it is always apparent to those who can see. For such people, and this is true of most (but probably not all) AGW skeptics, the fact that some sort of charade is in progress is obvious, even if one does not characterize it in those terms. …..cont//”.

__Credit: Rick Wallace (R.W.) at WUWT (2016/03/10)
__Starting with “weather” (HERE):

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Sun is only a modest player in CLIMATE CHANGE affairs!

vostok-T-recordModest means modest! Modest with regard to the sun means only a third place or less in CLIMATE CHANGE matters! Skeptics like to challenge main-stream science on the influence of the sun, HERE & HERE referring to “….spectral analysis […over the last ~ 9400 years] identifies a number of distinct periodicities/cycles such as 88 yr, 104 yr, 150 yr, 208 yr, 506 yr, 1000 yr, and 2200 yr…”. That is hardly to dispute, but still wrong with regard to the claim that “the sun has always had an important influence upon climate change”. The sun’s influence is ocean controlled: Variation in solar activity is reflected in cycles. But temporary temperature variations, have little to do with “climate change”, as e.g. “solar activity appears to have remained relatively stable since the 1700s”, assumes a recent investigation. On short term volcanos, on long term oceans change climate, but claiming that there are also “other natural climate drivers” is nonsense.  It’s is all physics. There is no evidence that varying sun-ray has ever caused a significant and abrupt climatic change during several hundred-thousand years. REF-1 , REF-2

Credit/image : WUWT

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IPCC ignores human impact on atmospheric water vapor

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007 IPCC Report) determine: “Water vapor is the most abundant and important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. However, human activities have only a small direct influence on the amount of atmospheric water vapor.”
IPCC is ignorant and wrong on the influence of human. Since industrialization human activities churn and turn the sea surface layer down to a dozen and more meters (Fig.1). Several hundred thousand ship propellers, and million other activities exchange warmer with colder water, or vice vers, and modify the salinity structure. That is the gate by which the amount of vapor is generated.

0227_2016 clip-WUWT

These ocean uses affect the part of the ocean that is the major weather maker up to several weeks if not many months. The state of the upper 50 to 200 meters sea surface layer govern climate up to several years. The weather making mechanism is water vapor, and that is controlled by the state of the oceans. In comparison CO2 is just 0.04% of the total atmospheric gases (Fig.2). Whether it has a significant role depends also foremost on the conditions of the sea and its generating impact on vapor. IPCC’s ignorance disguise politics and the general public from addressing the climate change issue properly, while the skeptic community fails to challenge IPCC in this respect, as can be seen in a post at WUWT. The link concludes:

However, as Aldous Huxley said,
“Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.”

The basic idea is based on a post at WUWT
Fig.1 with more explanation.

See also

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Valentin’s Day Cold – Service from Europe again?

Europe is warm (Fig1). Atlantic air flows smoothly East (discussed HERE), setting the “Siberian Express” in motion, pushing Artic air to NorthEast of the U.S. (Fig.2) That had been already the case last year (MORE) and now again this year (Fig. 3, 4):

 0214_d  10

Bitter Temperatures to Put Northeast Under Deep Freeze on Valentine’s Day (nbcnews – Feb.14/2016)
Bitter temperatures flirted with record lows on Sunday as “life-threatening” conditions put millions across the country in a deep freeze for Valentine’s Day. More than 38 million people from the Plains into the Midwest and East Coast were under winter-storm warnings or advisories

 0214_a  0214_b

overnight, according to The Weather Channel. The coldest air mass of the winter brought the thermometer down to minus 6 degrees overnight in Minneapolis, while New Yorkers were urged to take “extreme precautions” against wind chill.

UPDATE 02/15/16: New York City faced its coldest Valentine’s Day since 1916, with a record-breaking zero degrees in Central Park

NYDAILYNEWS 02/15/2016: While New York City had its coldest start to Valentine’s Day in 100 years on Sunday, it would seem balmy compared with the wicked wind chill at upstate Whiteface Mountain. As temperatures dropped across the Northeast from the blast of a polar vortex, the wind chill at Whiteface, near Lake Placid, made it feel like a body- and mind-numbing minus 114 degrees (-81° C) late Saturday and into Sunday. Central Park could only muster a minus 1 degree.
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Failure of Meteorology – Europe winter 1939/40

Most surprisingly, Europe winter 1939/40 was the coldest for 100 years.

Unfortunately, back in summer 1939 there was no voice that warned Adolf Hitler and his consorts that a major war in general, and a naval warfare in particular, would bear a high risk of dangerous interfering with weather and atmospheric conditions, with unknown consequences.

 1a_  1b_

In addition, no one mentioned how foolish it would be to start with naval war activities in northern European waters in early autumn. It would release the heat stored in the North Sea and Baltic earlier than in other years. This heat is an essential contributor to moderate winters in Europe. No, Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler and the High 2_Command of the Wehrmacht had no idea of the risks, neither did their professional advisers. Meteorology failed then and over all decades ever since. Meteorology is still unable to explain what happened seven decades ago, and the few who did, presents unproven claims, as e.g. Professor Stefan Brönnimann assuming a correlation to an El Nino event. Current El Nino winter 2015/16 proves: it as nonsense.  MORE
16_Adolf Hitler’s personal responsibility, for weather and climate modification in winter 1939/40 and beyond, was never raised. That is irresponsible and a great failure of Meteorology and Climatology.

Credit: ocean-climate-law

Update: Feb12/2016
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El Niño does not warm the world

1_When will climate science be able to distinguish clearly between a global-average manifestation of El Niño-driven global weather effects, and 2_an explanation of global average warming associated with El Niño? Concerning the latter aspect the World Meteorology Organization seems not able and willing to do the simplest considerations (Hottest Year). The feature is about a temporary warmer than normal SSTs across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (ENSO), which looks like one water bubble or pool. Compared to ocean dimension it is merely “a drop in the sea”, and only a tiny fraction warmer than usual, namely about 0,5 to 3°C, with a little dip down to a depth of 100 meters (max 150m), whereas the mean Pacific depth is 4,280 m. Any rough calculation shows that there is not much El Niño can offer to heat the world and contribute to global warming. The water volume is not more than about 0,06% of the Pacific volume, and the ENSO area with higher than +3°CFeb03 of average may possibly account for about 0,10% (Further details here). All oceans and seas contribute permanently heat to the atmosphere. El Nino is negligible in this respect. WMO should undertake more competent considerations, and talk less empty stuff.


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A Tiny Cold Hole in Hottest Year – Fine Art Not More

Only by consensus among scientists 2015 is the hottest. Whether that is the case we do not know, as temperature records have been adjusted, 58_1adjusted, and adjusted over several decades. For 2015 NOAA presents a wonderful image, presumably more art than science, with a tiny cold hole between Iceland and Canada. The ‘glowing globe with a blue eye’ is based on global average temperature difference to the period of 1951 to 1980. That is gross negligent if not scam. The 1930s ended with almost as high temperatures as during the last decade with the years 1934, 1931, 1938, 1939 in the top league of hottest years since the end of the Little Ice Age about 1850. In late 1939 World 58_2War II commenced. Four month later the winter in Europe was the coldest for 100 years (more HERE and HERE) and subsequently global temperature broke down for decades, recovering only in the 1980s. What a disaster, if science has one day to admit that it was WWII.
Enjoy the NOAA image as art not more.

NASA/NOAA: Press Release, 20 Jan,2016

Update 06 Feb.:

According World Meteorology Organization: “The global average surface temperature in 2015 broke all previous records….An exceptionally strong El Niño and global warming caused by greenhouse gases joined forces with dramatic effect on the climate system in 2015,” said WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas.
In a previous post is assumed that claiming any warming from El Niño is gross nonsense, as the ‘warm water pool’ causing El Niño is too small for any significant global warming impact.


Previous Post:

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Storm Henry and El Niño – could be an interesting case to study

While El Niño goes strong in the Pacific, storm Henry reach Europe today, Fig. 1 & 2 , which could be an interesting case to study, whether this goes 1together. But not for met-services preferring to make forecast in the distant future.

UK Met Office just updated decadal forecasts, also called ‘near-term’ climate predictions, and declares 2015 the warmest year on record. The UK Met Office claims that these high global temperatures are consistent with continued high levels of greenhouse gases and big changes that are currently underway in the climate 2_system and were highlighted in a recent Met Office research news article (September 2015).

OGC ascertained immediately that already the first sentence of the report is faulty. That is the crux of climate research.

REF: Met-Office: Storm Henry (Jan.30);  
Monday 1 February 2016 ( ) Scotland battening down the hatches once again as gale force winds and heavy rain set to batter the country .
Monday 1 February 2016 (The Guardian) Gusts of 70mph-80mph expected across Scotland as bad weather also forecast for Northern Ireland, northern England and parts of Wales

 UPDATE February 2nd, 2016



Further Strom update 06 Feb.2016

5_ 6_


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Quick Ice Age by Undersea Volcano

60-1Undersea volcanic eruption has caused a Snowball Earth long ago. Recent papers (HERE, HERE) and blogs 60-2WUWTCLIMATE-ETC, ICEAGENOW showed interest concerning the impact on ocean warming, CO2 increase, and climate change. The problem is different: It could trigger a new ice age within a short period of time. The ocean is too big to reflect pronounced on a bit heat input, but may alter oceanic currents. Major changes in the global flow system would affect the sea surface. Overall ocean temperature is about 4° Celsius. The warm sea surface with more than 10°C is a very thin layer north and south of the Equator.  Cooling the upper surface layer down by a few degrees Celsius could be sufficient to trigger new ice age. Mankind may have only a few months to lament about the good time of “global warming”, as the chance to alter the trend is nil, and 60-3a Snowball Earth would end further commenting pretty soon.

Nature Geoscience (January 18, 2016)

WUWT, January 18, 2016:

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Man-Made Ocean Warming? Yes, but it’s not CO2.


“Dr Arnd Bernaerts has long studied effects in Northern European Seas. Here are excerpts from his recent Feb2016publication:

Offshore Wind-Parks and Northern Europe’s Mild Winters:
Contribution from Ships, Fishery, et cetera?

the 11 page essay in PDF

His main point from the abstract:
The marine environment of North Sea and Baltic is one of the most heavily strained by numerous human activities. Simultaneously water and air temperatures increase more than elsewhere in Europe and globally, which cannot be explained with “global warming”.
Since mankind, during the course of a year, agitates the water column of North Sea and Baltic by stirring, more warmth is taken to deeper 10_water in the summer season and rises to the surface from lower layers in the winter period, where heat is exchanged with the air until sea icing is observed. This is a process that can be seen from the beginning of September until the end of March.
The facts are conclusive. “Global Climate Change” cannot cause a special rise in temperatures in Northern Europe, neither in the North Sea nor the Baltic or beyond. Any use of the oceans by mankind has an influence on thermo-haline structures within the water column from a few cm to 10m and more. Noticeable warmer winters in Europe are the logical consequence.

North Americans should not think themselves unaffected by all this. Consider this graphic of the Siberian Express:

The more the Atlantic weather governs the situation beyond the Ural the further Polar and Siberian cold will be pushed eastwards, called ‘Siberian Express’(Fig). This was felt in Alaska, Canada and Eastern U.S. Many days were extremely cold with deviations from the mean of 20°C and beyond. “ More information is here:

h/T: RON CLUTZ , Post-20-Jan-2016

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Does El Nino Warm the Entire Climate System?

The current 2015–16 El Niño is one of the three strongest ever recorded. For a number of months El Niño is blamed for unusual weather, which 2_is widely acknowledged that certain effects can be linked to a strong El Niño. While the event causes weather ‘moderation’, its impact on global 1_warming does not. A plain calculation suggests: negative.

A warmer than average water pool along the Equator must have an effect on air circulation. As soon as the usual trade-wind ceases the entire global air circulation changes. When the trade-wind cease, global air circulation adapt to the change. Unusual weather is inevitable, and different temperature levels may follow temporarily. But a general warming is most unlikely.

Attached are two graphs indicating the dimension of current El Niño. By rough calculation the warm water-pool is about 5’000 km long (West-East), 2’000 km wide (North-South), and 0,1 km deep, covering an area of 10 Million square-km, or a volume of 1 Million cubic-km. If one puts this numbers into a global perspective, namely an ocean area of 361 Million sqkm, respectively ocean volume of 1285 Million cubkm a correlation can be explained only by faith. The minimal higher temperature of the pool (<2,5°Celsius), may alter temporarily some atmospheric conditions, but is barely sufficient to warm the  entire climate system. Not only El Niño releases heat to the atmosphere, but so does every square-meter of the oceans. OCEANS GOVERN CLIMATE

Related texts:

Links: 2015–16 El Niño

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Adolf Hitler changed climate in winter 1939/40, but science doesn’t know why

Only four months into World War Two (WWII) winter weather 1939/40 run amok and global air temperatures dropped for three decades until Jan1940mid-1970s. After the end of 70 years copyright barrier,  Hitler’s ‘Mein Kampf’ is back in print, a book full of hate, lies, and stupid conclusions, written between 1924 and 1926. He is better known as the greatest war monger of all time, but due to failure of meteorology and climate science, was never identified as the first and worst individual who caused climate change, and called a “criminal in climate change matters”. Adolf Hitler started WWII on 1st September 1939 and only four months later Europe tumbled into the coldest winter in more than 100 years. By mid-January 1940 temperatures fell to minus 40°C at many locations from Leningrad/St. Petersburg to Sofia, with an all-time cold record in Poland. For more details see January 1940 Temp-Map. The coldness continued until the end of February 1940. But science does not know.
That all happen 76 years ago. In winter 1939/40 a strong El Niño was active, in Europe extreme cold temperatures governed. This winter, the so-called “Monster Godzilla El Niño”, influences the weather worldwide, in Europe temperatures are above average (see: Fig.). Do not ask science for the reasons for these dramatic differences. Science don’t know; and seems not to have the capacity (mental, financial, and willingness). Science shows no interest to identify Adolf Hitler objectively as the greatest climate change criminal. Science is hopeless in WWII climate change matters, a matter never barred from being investigated, published and explained.


January 1940 Temp-Map:

“Monster Godzilla El Niño”:
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Poland’s Cold Snap: ‘deadliest ever’ or: ‘most ignorant claim ever’?

“One of Poland’s deadliest-ever cold snaps killed at least 21 people over the weekend, with temperatures falling to -18C (-0.4F), officials say”63_fin reported BBC on January, Monday, 04. . Meteorology Services underline such incompetent reporting, e.g., instead of informing the general public that 76 years ago air temperature plugged to record lows before mid-January 1940, as reported by the New York times; 08. Jan: minus 35°C in Northern and Central Russia, and on the 11th: Romania -40°; Riga -41°; Vienna -26° Sofia; and at Siedlce in Poland minus 41° the all-time record (see map; Source). Although also a strong El Nino year, the difference between January 2016 and 1940 is tremendous, because Europe was in the fifth month of World War II, that altered the status of the reginal seas so much, that the cold snap in early January 1940 was only the beginning of more worst to come. The prospect this January is very different as indicated in the attached graphic. See for entire month January 1939 versus 2016 previous post:


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Climate science is master in hiding abrupt cooling

When will it be recognized that the oceans are huge and have only an average temperature of + 4°C, able to cause very sudden drastic cooling4_ that could threaten the survival of civilization.

One of the most shocking scientific realizations of all time has slowly been dawning on us: an abrupt cooling could be triggered by our current global-warming trend. Europe’s climate could become more like Siberia’s, assumed William H. Calvin some time ago, warning that global warming could lead, paradoxically, to drastic cooling — a catastrophe that could threaten the survival of civilization. In his view there seems to be no way of escaping the conclusion that global climate flips occur frequently and abruptly. An abrupt cooling could happen now, and the world might not warm up again for a long time.

Calvin’s essay was published two decades ago, but a global cooling issue is poison to AGW, the anthropogenic warming thesis of mainstream climate science. Unfortunately the situation is even worst. W.H. Calvin assumes that the world could be back to ice-age temperature within a decade. It can happen much faster.

Adolf Hitler and his naval force managed to catapult Europe back to an ice-age winter in just four months, namely from September to December 1939, as indicated in the previous post and Oceans Govern Climate

Credit: William H. Calvin;  The Atlantic Monthly; January 1998; The Great Climate Flip-Flop; Volume 281, No. 1;

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Storm “Frank”, El Niño; Insufficient Explanation

2_Climate alarmists have run wild with predictions about the Monster El Niño active in the Pacific for several 1_months (MORE). A corresponding situation existed in late 1939. But between the temperatures January 1940 and assumed January 2016 the difference could not be bigger. Don’t ask meteorology to explain. 76 years have passed without ever been interested in the matter.
But while it is expected that December 2015 is the hottest on record, December 1939 was the beginning of an extreme cold winter in Europe. The winter was special because it was the coldest since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850, turning a global warming trend into a three decades lasting period of cooling, which happened after four months war, in World War II. Why caring about winter 1939/40? Why took “General Frost” reign as early as mid-December 1939? Why understanding too much of climate change and man’s impact in this matter?


Up-Date Met-Office 31 Dec: “…..the specific nature of this December’s extreme weather might be linked to the detailed structure of this El Nino, to the warmth of the north-east Pacific Ocean and to their combined effects on the atmospheric circulation………So from basic physical understanding of weather systems it is entirely plausible that climate change has exacerbated what has been a period of very wet and stormy weather arising from natural variability.”   Met-Office 31 Dec. 2015: “What’s been happening to our weather?”

Sorry, the water around the UK is important for weather in the UK. Psst: Don’t tell Met-Office what is easy to see in two previous posts

HERE: Nervous Met-Office – Ignoring Regional Sea
HERE: Regional Seas not El Niño warm Christmas 2015

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Nervous Met-Office – Ignoring Regional Sea

1229_2015___The recent run of unsettled, wet weather will continue this week with Storm Frank (MetOff-29Dec15), the sixth named storm of the season 1229_FIN_arrives. December has already been a record breaking month for rainfall in some parts of the UK, with exceptional amounts of rain falling onto already saturated ground (28Dec- HERE). Wet weather will continue. Storm Frank (955 hPa) south-east of Greenland Tuesday morning is on the way (29 Dec) –Fig 1 (left)–
How much of this situation is due to Northern Europe’s condition, high air pressure East of the Baltic (Fig.1), and high sea surface temperatures from Faroe Island to St. Petersburg (Fig.2 – right). No wonder that Met-Off is surprised, if not taking the North Sea and Baltic into account, and not asking why? Excessive use of the regional seas should not be ignored. HERE & HERE

Met-Office update: 30 December 2015 – Heavy rain and strong winds associated with Storm Frank have affected many parts of the UK -HERE-


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Regional Seas not El Niño warm Christmas 2015


Recent weeks have been warm in Europe, well above average. The North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are below average, but the ocean north of Iceland, and the North Sea and Baltic, well above. That warms Northern Europe, at a time when the influence of the sun is modest and the seas heat the region significantly. Not necessarily everyone understands it. According to the UK Met Office, the exceptional warmth in Britain and 1221_2015_northern continental Europe is linked to the strongest El Niño ever recorded, causing unusual weather from Britain to Australia, reports The Guardian (Dec.20, 2015): “What we are experiencing is typical of an early winter El Niño effect,” said Adam Scaife, head of Met Office long- range forecasting.

What Mr Adam Scaife does not tell us, how a warm-water –section in the Pacific can warm the water
around Europe from Gibraltar to Svalbard/Spitsbergen?
Without mentioning a correlation between warm air temperature and the warm seas in Europe is of little help. Not even mentioning the sea water conditions is weak science, and not worth to be taken serious.

The Guardian


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COP21 – A “Resounding Failure”; ”A Grand Illusion”; “Delirium”!

For the Belgian Professor of Chemistry István Marko “it is a mystery how any serious environmental organization holding the belief that man-made CO2 emissions are damaging global climate would be satisfied with such a powerless agreement, which we are now seeing as being nothing more than an illusion of a binding treaty.”  Notrickszone clip-WUWT

Prof Marko has no good word for COP21, seeing the rich countries engaged in “wishful thinking“, but are his thoughts any better? As a man of chemistry he should know more about climate affairs, and what makes work. More than two-third of weather and climate is done by water, in the air and oceans. When Marko calls COP21 as no useful or showing serious results, one wonders what he offers instead. Too little to credit his thoughts higher as he credits COP21: a “grand illusion“; a “resounding failure”. Either Prof. Marko tells us something about the “climate-water-system”, or he keeps his mouth shut.

Credit: Notrickszone;


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COP21 in cloud-cuckoo land

One single winter proves that COP21 is wrong! War winter 1939/40 proves COP21 acts irresponsible.glob_15Dec
There was an El Nino active in late 1939. Since May 2015 a ‘Monster Godzilla El Niño” is promulgated by science and the press. In Paris COP21 agreed a new climate treaty on global warming few days ago on Sunday the 13th December, without taking note of the real world.
By mid-December 1939 in Northern European waters sea icing commenced:
__From Denmark first signs of ice were reported around mid-December and they increased soon in the inner closed waters.
Dec15_ Icing emerged on river Elbe on the 16th of December 1939, intensified massively before month end, and continued with extreme sea ice conditions for 90 days –throughout the regional seas- until mid-March 1940.

This year, with ‘normal activities at sea’, North Sea and Baltic are much warmer than average (Fig.1), far away to freeze. That was different seven decades ago. Naval war has churned the sea, cooling it down, sea ice established early and lasting, for which only man was to blame! Easy to find out. But COP21 remains in cloud-cuckoo land.

h/t: Booklet, p 36/37 at

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The long way to understand climate

1203Since 2011 a new satellite system collects data on long-term climate change and short-term weather conditions. Once and a while it produce nice pictures, as recently, when damaging heavy rains fell on South Carolina in the southeastern United States at the beginning of October 2015. Much of that water had, by mid-October, flowed into the Atlantic. The image, a Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), shows the runoff as it interacts with ocean currents on Oct. 15. Climatologists use VIIRS data to improve our understanding of global climate change (Source).

Beautiful pictures not necessarily improve understanding. The oceans are deep and the image only shows the surface layer, to which satellite data contribute at most a fraction, if any useful information about the ocean interior at all. Enjoy the picture, but remain reserved that it contributes significantly to understand oceanic influents on climate, as oceans govern climate.


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Self-combustion: Schellnhuber’s view of the big picture – Really?

99_anom_Oct_2015Prof. H.J. Schellnhuber’s 784-page epos ‘Self-immolation’ (2015), just published in time for COP21, commencing in Paris today, is a masterpiece piece of missionary work – for doom mongers.

Peter Höppe, Head of Munich Re’s Geo Risks Research/Corporate Climate Centre: “Self-combustion’ is the book of one of the internationally most renowned climate scientist, that is written with lots of personal commitment. There is probably no other book that depicts the physical processes and political discussions about climate change as comprehensively and understandably as this one. Time and time again Hans Joachim Schellnhuber intentionally changes his perspective from an objective role as a scientist, takes side and works with his unconventional style of writing. It is a captivating book worth reading.” Really?

As early as 1978 Schellnhuber talked about a carbon dioxide problem. In 1989, environmental Bill McKibben said humanity was in danger of burning up in “a few more decades” if we didn’t overcome our “addiction” to fossil fuels. Now activist scientist Hans Joachim Schellnhuber insists we’re on track for self-immolation. He pays little attention to the seas, their extreme low mean temperatures of about +4°Celsius, and the much greater danger that the oceans one day may trigger a new ice age again – then we would be happy that the world has been warming since the end of last Little Ice Age about 1850.

We shouldn’t allow the doom mongers to missionary the world, based on insufficient knowledge of how climate ticks.

See also:

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“Climate” – a creation of corrupted people – COP21

“Most of the people going to Paris will know nothing about the climatology or climate science. They will not know or want to know that the 1128_2015science used as the basis for the conference is a creation of corrupted people who hide behind rules created for a completely different purpose”, is the verdict of Tim Ball [at WUWT – 27 Nov. 2015].

Few decades ago the late Chair of Canada’s national Climate Program Planning Board (1992-202), F. Kenneth Hare. said this about Climatology: “You hardly heard the word professionally in the 1940s. It was a layman’s word. Climatologists were the halt and the lame. And as for the climatologists in public service, in the British service you actually, had to be medically disabled in order to get into the climatological division ! Climatology was a menial occupation that came on the pecking scale somewhat below the advertising profession.” In Bulletin American Meteorological Society , 1979, p. 1171-74.

The lesson from this is, neither understood the subject climate,
nor something learned from F. Kenneth Hare’s finding.

Ref: Tim Ball; An Important Lesson On The Anniversary of Climategate. [27 November 2015]
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Monster Godzilla El Niño disappoints the climate activists

When did we “pathologize” weather? When did commonplace weather become abnormal? The debates over the past and future of clip_image001anthropogenic climate change are of great importance (climate change is ubiquitous in history). But the news increasingly describes normal weather as a kind of plague, something to fear.

Climate alarmists have run wild with predictions about the “monster” “Godzilla” El Niño, a last throw of the dice before the COP-21 climate conference in Paris. The latest forecasts of the major climate models suggest that it will disappoint activists. All at WUWT

Is Monster Godzilla El Niño not shaping Europe’s winter? HERE

El Niño – To be, or not to be

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El Niño – Shaping Europe’s winter?

What will strongest ever El Niño, widely named ‘Godzilla’, do to Europe’s
coming winter?


 Generally, El Niño could cause a jet stream configuration to allow for
cold air at times into West-Europe, says accuweather.

NOAA forecast predicts differently (Fig), temperatures well above mean.
1939 was as also an El Niño year, but Europe suffered under the coldest
winter for 100 years. Many decades have passed, but nothing explained.
Is that serious science?

We will see! Winter 2015/16 is coming for sure, and the strength of
El Niño is likely to pike in December, NOAA predicts (12.Nov.15).

Found at: Has El Niño a role on sub-cold winters in Europe?

20 Nov. 2015 by admin

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COP21 – US $ per year for waste?


clip-WUWTForward! Forward! Let’s proceed to the largest and probably most senseless investment ever. Big money for climate science in sight! Paris will soon host a meeting (COP21) based on the Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992 (UNFCCC), to replace the Kyoto Protocol (1997) that commit States to reduce greenhouse gas emission, to establish a ‘Green Fond’ to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change. For this aim a ‘mere’ 100 Billion $ shall be raised per annum. Within a decade that sums up to 1 Trillion. For those who have no idea of what this means, they should note that the economic cost of the entire WWII have been estimated with a sum of about U.S. $ 1,600,000,000,000 (1.6 Trillion).  This deal is pushed by IPCC and people who agreed on the UNFCCC, a document, which does not even say what ‘climate’ means. This approach is stunning, and utterly irresponsible. Science claims that CO2 emission is warming the world, paying too little attention that water ‘is the driver of nature’ (Leonardo da Vinci) and not able to recognize that the oceans dominate and control the climatic system. The attached image shows the proportion between C02 and water vapor, while the latter has a ratio to the oceans of 1:1000.

Spending 100 Billion p.a. in a still poorly understood mechanism is of little help for climate control, but would generate large sums for science to continue letting the public believe that they understand what they pretend are supposed to understand?

Further reading: Tim Ball: Water Vapour: The Big Wet Elephant In The Room   ;   Older post: HereHereHere
Ammended: 06Nov.2015
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EXXON’s failure in climate affairs

EXXON’s failure in climate affairs
[h/t Dave; Ref.: ] Excerpt

EXXON’s fault is not strongly opposing a meaningless language with regard what ‘climate’ is, but accepting that. WMO/IPCC regard that
Climate as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years.” (IPCC, AR5, 2013, Glossary, p. 1450) What are “relevant qualities …from months to millions of years”.

The sea is by far the biggest generator of vapor
The sea is by far the biggest generator of vapor

How can science work and communicate with the general public, politics, and skeptics with such nonsense?
According the Glossary of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the “weather” depend on what you are looking for:
____The “present weather” table consists of 100 possible conditions,
____the “past weather” comprise 10 aspects, while
____”layman weather”, covers merely temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind.
Even if the AMS-Glossary is silent on “future weather”, the nonsense gets a face. Who is making the selection? Who decides over the period of time, and the length of a data series.
It should not be such a surprise that discussing ‘climate’ has been so unproductive over the last 30 years. EXXON is acting globally, has top lawyers, scientists, engineers and enough money to require and support a clear and indubitable terminology in an area of paramount importance.

EXXON could have done better.

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Hurricane Patricia: ‘strongest ever’ storm hits Mexico now! California had four in September 1939

A serious EL Niño event  is active! Strongest hurricane ever recorded, Patricia is expected Friday 23. October 2015X_

__Hurricane Patricia: Mexico awaits ‘strongest ever’ storm (BBC: 23/10 ,16h UTC)

How was it in California September 1939, with four storms, heat wave, heavy rain and ….the only tropical storm to make landfall in California in the twentieth century…… A serious EL Niño event  was active!  Science never investigated this matter seriously.  Read more: (Ch. C4 d), & //         Credit & more :

Added 24.Oct.15
Added 24.Oct.15
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Make statistics stupid? Drives atmosphere climate?

Climate variability in the North Atlantic is atmosphere driven a new study claims. [ScienceDaily, 15 October 2015] explaining: that the pattern1a_ of the AMO*) can be accounted for by atmospheric circulation alone, without any role for the ocean circulation.
Is that serious? The AMO pattern is based on statistical analyses of observational and proxy climate data. If the study compares climate models that include ocean circulation with climate models that have no ocean circulation, and concludes that ocean circulation may not play as prominent a role as previously thought, the researcher ignore the difference in dimension involved. The correlation between sea and air is about 1:1000. Small difference (howsoever explained) not rectify to question that the North Atlantic is the principle driver of regional temperatures and weather.

*) AMO – Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation.
ScienceDaily : University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. “New study questions long-held theories of climate variability in the North Atlantic: Atmosphere appears to drive decades-long climate variations.” ScienceDaily, 15 October 2015.
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Weather and Climate? Do they know what they are talking about!

Frequently heard; there is confusion between weather and climate. For real? Is it not due to poor definitions?

Definitions: IPCC, AR5, 2013, Glossary, p. 1450
Definitions: IPCC, AR5, 2013, Glossary, p. 1450

Talking about weather foremost requires selecting on what weather pattern one needs or wants to talk about. The British know it, others as well. For ordinary men it may be entertaining, but in science it is a lack in seriousness and competence. Weather components or explanations can go in many hundred items, for which science offers commonly only a very general explanation (NASA):

“Weather is the way the atmosphere behaves.”

What an enlightening statement! That is definitely not a serious definition, and for any scientific work absolute useless. Nevertheless science does not hesitate to say: “Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the “average weather” or more rigorously, by statistical description.” (See image)

Now many ‘weather situations’ and other events can be linked to climate and climate change, and open a wide field for confusion, nonsense talking, wrong research trends, and costly misplaced political investments (1).

One day the world will have to pay a heavy price for the lack of proper academic terminology, as it prevents to come up with definitions that put the oceans first:



  (1) The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, will be held in Paris from November 30 to December 11, aiming to establish funds rising to USD 100 billion per year by 2020.
LINK Nasa:
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El Niño – To be, or not to be

Weather will get interesting over the next months. Speculations are high. A rapidly strengthening El Niño event
will likely peak later this fall as one of the strongest El Niño event ever observed (24/09). 

23 September 2015 - Global Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly
23 September 2015
– Global Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

There is an approximately 95% chance that El Niño will continue through Northern Hemisphere winter 2015-16, gradually weakening through spring 2016 (NOAA). What does this mean for the upcoming winter season? That is the big question!

For Europe the risk of a colder is currently considered small, predicted UK-MetOffice recently. The GUARDIAN offers more options;

10 September: El Niño expected to hit US hard, but not enough to ease California drought. Climate officials warn winter’s weather pattern likely to be one of the strongest as effects are likely to be felt from December to March
17 September : The world has experienced record-breaking warmth every month so far this year, and Noaa scientists say global warming and El Niño are the cause
21 September: El Niño: a global weather event that may save California — and destroy the tropics.

The SST-Anomaly map indicates to two further areas of interest, with too warm SST in the Eastern North Pacific , and too cold SST in the North Atlantic. What is at stake? How will the winter 2015/16 be in North America, in Europe, and Siberia?

17. September :
21. September:

Image source:

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“Baltic 2” another climate change factor?

21 September 2015 /admin

Water temperture profile in southern Baltic Sea over a depth of 43 m at several levels
Water temperature profile in southern Baltic Sea over a depth of 43 m at several levels

FoundationScience has not yet explained why Norther Europe warms more than the rest of the world (REF.) Any impact of ocean use has not crossed their mind.  Today further 80 offshore wind turbines north of Rügen start-up, at a location which is between 23 to 40m deep. Over the seasons the temperature difference between top and bottom can reach more than 12°C and differ between various depths level and throughout the season. As the water masses of the Baltic is in move permanently, inevitable any kind of platform forms a considerable obstacle, forcing the “natural current” to change course. During summer that will force more heat in, and in winter more heat out. Regional air temperature is likely to increase. This is a very simple process to recognize. Too difficult for science to understand and investigate?


REF. : Offshore Wind-parks and mild Winters.

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Is Climate Science a Monster?

Skeptics are doing what scientists are supposed to do, that is disproving the AGW hypothesis, reminded Tim Ball in a recent WUWT comment [19. September.], when some IPCC members required to launch criminal charges against “climate deniers”. Of course such talking is ridiculous and irresponsible. But can Tim Ball require more serious behavior? Are skeptics so much better? Not when it comes to clear scientific terminology, as they use the same nonsense climate terms as the promoters of ‘official’ climate. Tim Ball is no exception (see here). Neither CLIMATE nor WEATHER is defined in a manner that servers discussion and understanding our water planet. That supports a “Climate Science turned Monster”, and skeptics inability to stop this trend. They could by requiring precise and clear terminology, which meet academic standards.

WUWT 09 September 2015

Dr. Tim Ball on:

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Climate variability linked to solar variations – Correct??

GEOMAR explains - 15 September 2015
GEOMAR explains – 15 September 2015

“Although the solar effect on the North Atlantic Oscillation explains only a few percent of the total variance, the close relationship between solar activity and phase North Atlantic Oscillation is an important indicator to improve the predictability of climate variability” say GEOMAR (press-release 15. Sept. 2015)

“Rising global temperatures since the industrial revolution cannot be attributed to increased solar activity”, reports (August 7, 2015); by concluding
“The apparent upward trend of solar activity between the 18th century and the late 20th century has now been identified as a major calibration error in the Group Sunspot Number. Now that this error has been corrected, solar activity appears to have remained relatively stable since the 1700s.”

It is time to put the sun in second or third position. There is no evidence that varying sun-ray has ever caused a significant and abrupt climatic change in many million years.


h/t: 07 August 2015:

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Big Changes Underway in the Climate System? asks UK-Met

Big Changes Underway in the Climate System?   MetOff-Sept.2015
Big Changes Underway in the Climate System? MetOff-Sept.2015

Did UK-Met get already in a 21 pages long analysis (September 2015) the first sentence wrong, by saying:

“The Earth’s global average surface climate is primarily determined by the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the oceans and space”.
One may say that without being wrong, but it disguises the real dimensions over longer periods of time (climate), because the bulk of energy exchange is between oceans and space. Average surface temperatures depend highly on ocean heat storage and heat release.

The analysis confirm it by attributing any possible changes to the current status of El Niño, PDO, and AMO, not hesitating to conclude the report with a meaningless statement:
“ Further long-term global warming is expected over the coming decades but variations of climate worldwide from year to year or decade to decade will always depend on the subsequent variations in the patterns of climate variability described in this report.”



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Cold UK-summer 2015, which MetOff fails to explain.

MetOff. express concern (28.Aug.15; HERE-1): No-one can deny that we have had a pretty
disappointing summer with a lot of unsettled weather and only a few warm spells,
especially through  July and August.

How the sea keeps Greatbritain cold
How the sea keeps Great Britain cold

Meanwhile DAILYMAIL predicts (HERE-2): A cold snap will begin on Sunday in Scotland and is expected to spread southwards, bringing snowfall to parts of England and Wales by Wednesday. Worst! Birmingham hit by ‘snow’ in September in unseasonal deluge, reported BirminghammMail on 02nd Sept (HERE-3).
The reason is simple. The North Atlantic water temperature is significantly below average. It affected UK summer weather and will dampen global temperature level. The sea shows strength in weather making, but MetOff shows little interest. Instead they “look beyond our shores” (read about it HERE-1)

h/t Paul: NCEP/NCAR reanalysis shows frigid summer conditions across the north. - See more at:
h/t Paul: NCEP/NCAR reanalysis shows frigid summer conditions across the north. – See more at:
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Not the Sun – The Ocean is the Driver.

Posted: 10 August 2015

The time may end soon eventually that the sun is responsible for significant climatic changes, as new research indicates:


“Rising global temperatures since the industrial revolution cannot be attributed to increased solar activity”, reports (August 7, 2015); by concluding 

“The apparent upward trend of solar activity between the 18th century and the late 20th century has now been identified as a major calibration error in the Group Sunspot Number. Now that this error has been corrected, solar activity appears to have remained relatively stable since the 1700s.”

It is time to put the sun in second or third position. There is no evidence that varying sun-ray has ever caused a significant and abrupt climatic change in many million years. Changing sun-ray will influence sea surface temperature accordingly, which show up in statistics, but that does not cause climatic changes. The control button is in the hand of the driver of climate, the ocean. The sun is insignificant in the global warming 1920-1940, and the global cooling 1940-1970, the oceans not.

Link: (August 7, 2015) : “Corrected sunspot history suggests climate change not due to natural solar trends”

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California Drought and El Niño

Anthony Watts’ recent post (30. July 2015) cites a study by Andrey Savtchenko et al. (NASA) indicating 5

“that El Niño contributes only six percent to California’s precipitation variability and is one factor among other, more random effects that influence how much rainfall the state receives. While it’s more likely El Niño increases precipitation in California, it’s still possible it will have no, or even a drying, effect.

What a helpless science. Why? They have not investigated what they should have done a long time ago.

Since summer 1939 a strong El Niño was active off South America’s coast. Few weeks later there was war in Mongolia and 6Europe. California experienced an eight days heat wave, since about 16th September followed by a severe tropical storm New York Times, 25th September) and record rain. It was the heaviest September rain in Los Angeles’ weather history and it broke the worst heat wave in Weather Bureau records, as measured by intensity and duration. It lasted for eight days. (NYT, 26 September). While Western Europe experienced an extreme rainy autumn, the USA ‘fell dry’ after receiving only a small percentage of normal precipitation: in October 78%, in November 44% and in December 71%. According to US Weather Bureau the fall season was extremely dry over large areas. (NYT, 07 January.1940). [for more see page 34ff at: ]

If NASA experts would have paid more attention on the extremes mentioned and shown in the US maps for two months in 1939, they may have been able to offer better forecasts concerning El Niño and its impact elsewhere.



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Russian research assumes new ice age.

The other day Lomonosov Moscow State University got worldwide attention.  By press release (16.July 2015) a new study was presented: “New Ice Age may begin by 2030”, assuming that:  “The arrival of intense cold similar to the one raged during the “Little Ice Age”, which froze the world during the XVII century and in the beginning of the XVIII century, is expected in the years 2030–2040. “

The study claims it will be the sun. A new reduction of the solar activity will lead to reduction of the solar irradiance. Indeed, solar activity affects the climate. Without the sun ‘climate’ would not exist. But is that enough to rectify the assumption?  Certainly not, sun radiation varies over periods and cycles, which will be reflected in temperatures variation, but never caused a significant climatic change event. For that water is needed, and earth has plenty of it. Not surprisingly, the article not even mentions the oceans. The oceans absorb, store, and release heat, which makes them the driver of climate. Their biggest potential to cause climate changes is the low temperature the entire water mass has, just about plus four degrees Celsius.

Competence in climate research does not go without the oceans. The LMSU study ignores the driver of the climate completely, while admitting: “However, only the time will show soon enough (within the next 5-15 years) if this will happen.” That is not very impressive.

w_Pacific_2(click on picture to enlarge)

(16.July 2015):

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Validation required! Climate impact of offshore wind turbines serious!

Offshore wind turbines “consume wind”, a force which is no longer available in the West Wind Drift to flow smoothly eastwards, explained a recent post (Link 1) with reference to work by Mark Z. Jacobson. Chien Wang and Ronald G Prinn (2011) found that offshore wind turbine installations cause a surface cooling over the installed offshore regions whereby this cooling is due principally to the enhanced latent heat flux from the sea surface to lower atmosphere, driven by an increase in turbulent mixing caused by the wind turbines which was not entirely offset by the concurrent reduction of mean wind kinetic energy (Link 2).

What the two papers ignore is the impact offshore installation cause due to immense obstacles between sea surface and the sea floor. They permanently change to flow of sea current and tides, altering the temperature and salinity structure on all levels. That is presumably much more relevant as what the papers discuss.

New field observations of actual wind turbine arrays are definitely required to provide ultimate validation of potential climatic impacts.


Link 1:
Link 2: Potential climatic impacts and reliability of large-scale offshore wind farms. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (April-June 2011) ¸

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Dr. Tim Ball on: „Generalization, Specialization and Climatology”. Does it mean he explains what climate is?

Actually Tim Ball does not say what climate is, he only refers to climatology and climate science. Is that sufficient to understand, respectively enshrines a definition for the term “climate”. In a recent post at WUWT (29:June2015) that is what he said:

Climatology is the study of weather patterns of a place or region, or the change of weather patterns over time. Climate science is the study of one component piece of climatology. The analogy I’ve used for decades is that climatology is a puzzle of thousands of pieces; climate science is one piece of the puzzle. A practical approach to assembling the puzzle is to classify pieces into groups.
The problem is obvious, what is a “weather pattern”? Tim Ball is silent on it. Is it meaningless? That depends, for laymen not, because it is what they experience every day, for academic work it is utterly nonsense. Why?

  • Weather is the state of the atmosphere. Weather, seen from an anthropological perspective, is something all humans in the world constantly experience through their senses, at least while being outside. There are socially and scientifically constructed understandings of what weather is, what makes it change, the effect it has on humans in different situations, etc. Therefore, weather is something people often communicate about. (
  • Pattern is something that happens in a regular and repeated way. (merriam-webster dictionary)

Indeed, also weather – as a state of the atmosphere- is a laymen term people often communicate about. That is a very different sphere form scientific research and clear and correct scientific communication. Recently Tim Ball mentioned (25. Feb. 2014 – HERE) that Theophrastus (around 300 BC), a student of Aristotle’s, wrote a book setting out the first rules for weather forecasting recording over 200 empirical indicator. .Although Tim Ball admitted that “we haven’t come very far since. Indeed, I would argue we have regressed“, he use a climate terminology, which is similar superficial as used by main stream weather science.


WUWT (29:June2015):
Tim Ball  (25. Feb.2014):

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Weather ‘blocked’ by North Sea offshore wind farms soon?

The West Wind Drift supported by warm North Atlantic and Norwegian Current keep North Europe’s winter mild. How many offshore wind turbines are needed to decrease the flow of this warm air eastwards, which usually keep Siberian temperatures at bay from reaching West Europe? Today already more than 1200 turbines are grounded in a water depth down to 30 meters and more. The turbines “consume wind”, a force which is no longer available in the West Wind Drift to flow smoothly eastwards. Will it one day show an impact on the weather and air temperatures?


Computer simulations by Professor Mark Z. Jacobson have shown that offshore wind farms with thousands of wind turbines could have sapped the power of three real-life hurricanes that may diminish peak near-surface hurricane wind speeds by 25–41 m s−1 (56–92 mph) and storm surge by 6–79%. That is impressive, but for a reduced Hurricane Katrina’s wind speeds by 50 percent by the time it reach land a protective wall of 70,000 offshore wind turbines built 60 miles offshore from New Orleans would be needed.

On one hand the North Sea is far away from such figures, on the other hand the West Wind Drift across Northern Europe is an important factor in the Northern Hemisphere weather system where presumably much less turbines may have a serious impact. It seems neither any regulatory agency nor science has shown any interest in the matter until now.

! MORE: Mark Z. Jacobson et al (2014), Taming hurricanes with arrays of offshore wind turbines; Nature Climate Change 4, 195–200 (2014)
and Uni-Report:

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Hopeless! UK – Policy paper defines “climate change”, without saying what “climate” is!

A UK Policy paper (2012/2015),: “2010 to 2015 government policy: climate change international action”,  assert in Annex 5 to provide a definition on “climate change” (Link and full text below), but instead speak about statistics related to components of the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, and land surface. Actually they say: “Climate is a statistical characteristic“. Such an explanation is meaningless, at least superficial and thoughtlessly. One cannot change something without saying what this something is. This is the first fault, because a statistic is a statistic, and informative only for one individual item of investigation.

Maybe the UK Policy paper refers unsaid to the widely used saying (including the International Meteorological Organization  – IMO) that “climate is average weather”. Although this layman expression is for scientific research and thruthworthy communication hopelessly out of place, the UK Policy paper demonstrates that it does not care at all, respectively that they have little understanding of the issue, when they include into “climate change” also:

  • statistical characteristics of the oceans (such as heat content or sea level rise),
  • statistical characteristics of the cryosphere (such as extent of sea ice or length of glaciers) or
  • statistical characteristics of the land surface (such as changes in vegetation type)

Such an all-embracing definition explains noting, and may only serve to lie in the own pocket, or misguide the general public. A clear and meaningful language is a minimum science and politics should use.


UK Policy paper (2012/2015) (Annex 5):
A formal definition of climate change is:

“A change in the statistical characteristics of the atmosphere (such as temperature, rainfall, pressure, or winds), oceans (such as heat content or sea level rise), cryosphere (such as extent of sea ice or length of glaciers) or land surface (such as changes in vegetation type) typically sustained over several decades or longer. A change in climate may be due to natural or anthropogenic (i.e. due to human activity) factors, or a combination of both.”

Human-induced climate change is the current, past and future change in climate being driven by greenhouse gas emissions and other human activities, such as deforestation.

When Government talks about “climate change policy”, or action to “tackle climate change”, we are talking about climate change mitigation and adaptation. Adaptation is taking steps to minimise exposure to damaging impacts of climate change, and to build resilience and reduce vulnerability to a changing climate. Mitigation is taking steps to minimise the scale of global temperature rise by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and taking other steps, such as planting more forests.” UNQUOTE


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The oceans have stripes

In the last post Willis Eschenbach was cited: “we can say nothing about whether the ocean might be warming, cooling, or standing still.” We doubt that it will be possible soon, as the “oceans have stripes”.
A paper by Ethan Gutmann (2008) HERE explains:
“These stripes are not visible without looking very closely, but they are visible through their effect on currents, temperatures, and sea surface heights. They were first spotted in a careful analysis of the Mean Dynamic Ocean Topography (MDOT) dataset, but had to be confirmed by looking directly at ocean buoy and vertical temperature profile data”. Further details (selection):map

  • The stripes have velocities around 1-1.5cm/s,
  • Most changes in sea surface height, velocity, and temperature occur over thousands of kilometers.
  • These stripes are interesting for a number of other reasons. For one thing, they persist to at least 700 meters deep…
  • the velocity within the stripes does not always follow the orientation of the stripes.

Ethan Gutmann (2008)

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Are Oceans Warming?

That is a good question! Willis Eschenbach raised it at WUWT recently: HERE A convincing answer would be invaluable. For years a lot of opinions swirl around. Prof. R. Pielke Sr (2008) regards „monitoring of global average ocean heat content as the appropriate metric to assess global warming.” HERE The IPCC-2007 assumes a warming of the upper sea level 0 to 700 meters, HERE, claiming that “Approximately 7.9 million temperature profiles were used”. Is that a lot? Definitely not, as only three cubic-meters of water have the same heat capacity as an air-column of 1x1x10’000meter. The number of data required would go into billions. The Ocean is huge, deep and cold.


An image from the Atlantic may serve as illustration. It seems Willis Eschenbach recognizes rightly when he concludes his essay:

“we can say nothing about whether the ocean
might be warming, cooling, or standing still.”

Links provided above:

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Oceans Govern Climate

The name “oceansgovernclimate” is program. Measures to protect climate without profound information and understanding of the oceans are costly, insufficient, and delay action to prevent anthropogenic “ocean change” that probably cause climate change. Since long we support the fascinating theory on the impact of naval war on climate, as outlined in the “Booklet on Naval War changes Climate”. The two World Wars demonstrate conclusively how easy human activities induce alteration in the sea-structure that leads to climatic changes.  ‘Human activities’ cover everything, from shipping, fishing, leisure boats, and off-shore platforms. In so far the two major naval wars served as ‘large field experiments’, as summarized in the conclusion of the Booklet “Can WWII go by unnoticed?”, from which the following excerpts (p. 94f, PDF) are taken:

QUOTE. “The aim of the book was to leave no doubt that the ocean determined where the climate was heading to. In this scenario, CO2 played only a minor role. CO2 was definitely neither the source of the “Big Warming Bang” (in 1918, far in the North of the North Atlantic), nor of the global cooling (from 1939 until the 1980’s).

Oceans and seas are very complex, which are not well-understood not even today. But war at sea during two major world wars was a tremendous force that has left its trace on the oceans. Two climate changes during the last c1entury prove our thesis. Winter temperature had risen in Spitsbergen with 8ºC (1918–1939). The whole Europe got warmer every year. The German Chancellor Adolph Hitler started the war in 1939 and immediately North Europe was dragged back into the Little Ice Age, which implied climatic conditions not experienced for over 100 years. Two arctic war winters followed in the region with extreme naval activities until the war at sea went global, in 1942. And what followed immediately after that? There were four decades of global cooling, affecting particularly the Northern Hemisphere, because here naval war had the most devastating effects and left a definite fingerprint in the downturn of global temperatures. Even though our book section on naval warfare between 1942 and 1945 is short, the connection between naval forces and global cooling is overwhelmingly convincing.

Winter temperatures of more than 5ºC below average are totally out of tune. Weather statistics cried for attention, but nothing happened in this respect over more than six decades. Until now, only one of the most ruthless WWII warmongers, the German Vice-Chancellor Hermann Goering, commented the arctic winter of 1939/40 by saying that a higher power has “sent” the harsh winter conditions. It is time to prove him wrong and to blame him, Hitler and the Nazis for having caused the arctic war winters and the global cooling………………

So far, the statements seem to contradict each other. But in a wider sense, they are pretty logical. Someone who claims to be able to explain current global warming must implicitly be able to explain a pronounced global cooling which affected the climate only half a century ago. Ignoring the event for more than six decades is even more bizarre than relating phenomena to a ‘higher power’.

If this investigation succeeds in proving that two major wars changed the course of the climate twice in the last century, it will also prove that shipping, fishing, off-shore drilling, and other ocean uses had constantly contributed to the global warming since the start of industrialization, more than 150 years ago.4

A new chapter on the climate change issue could be now opened, giving more attention to oceanic phenomena under the influence of the potential of the “1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”.  All research would lead to a better understanding and protection of the stability of our short-term weather and long-term global climate.” UNQUOTE
Material available at:

„Please find attached the first WorldPress contribution,suggesting that the four images are enlargeable.„